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Background Note: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Official Name: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Location: Central Africa. Bordering nations — Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.
Area: 2.345 sq. km. (905,063 sq. mi.; about the size of the U.S. east of the Mississippi).
Cities: Capital: Kinshasa (pop. approx. 9 million). Regional capitals — Bandundu, Bukavu, Goma, Kananga, Kindu, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, Matadi, Mbandaka, Mbuji-Mayi.
Terrain: Varies from tropical rainforests to mountainous terraces, plateaus, savannas, dense grasslands, and mountains.
Climate: Equatorial; ranges from tropical rainforest in the Congo River basin, hot and humid in much of the north and west, cooler and drier in the south central area and the east.
Nationality: Noun and adjective — Congolese.
Population (2011 est.): 71,712,867.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 3.24%.
Ethnic groups: Approximately 250 African ethnic groups; the Luba, Kongo, and Anamongo are some of the larger groups.
Religions: Christian 70% (Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%); Kimbanguist 10%; other sects and traditional beliefs 10%; Muslim 10%.
Languages: French, Lingala, Kiswahili, Kikongo, Tshiluba.
Education: Literacy (2008 est.): French or local language: 55% (women), 76% (men). Schooling (2007 est.) — none 21%, primary 46%, secondary 30%, university 3%.
Health (2007 est.): Infant mortality rate — 92/1,000 live births. Life expectancy (2008 est.) — 51.3 yrs.
Type: Republic; highly centralized with executive power vested in the president.
Independence: June 30, 1960 (from Belgium).
Constitution: The DRC has had numerous constitutions, constitutional amendments, and transitional constitutions since independence. The currently operative constitution was approved by 84% of voters in a December 2005 referendum and officially promulgated in February 2006.
Branches: Executive: President is head of state. The President nominates the Prime Minister, who is the head of government, and, together with his/her Cabinet, is approved by the parliament. Legislative — The 500-member National Assembly was elected in July 30, 2006 national elections. Provincial Assemblies elected the Senate in October 29, 2006 elections, and provincial governors in early 2007. Judicial — Supreme Court (Cour Supreme).
Administrative subdivisions: Eleven provinces including the capital city, Kinshasa.
Political parties: President Joseph Kabila's party is the Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et la Democratie (PPRD). A large coalition, the Majorite Presidentielle (MP) supports President Kabila. Former Transitional Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba. was Kabila's principal opponent in the 2006 presidential election (see "Government and Political Conditions" section below), but is currently under trial at the International Criminal Court in The Hague following his May 2008 arrest by Belgian authorities. His Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo (MLC) is still the largest single opposition party represented in parliament. Another important opposition party is the Union pour la Democratie et le Progres Social (UDPS), led by iconic Mobutu opponent Etienne Tshisekedi. The UDPS boycotted the 2006 elections but has nominated Tshisekedi as its presidential candidate for the 2011 presidential elections. In 2010, former National Assembly Speaker Vital Kamerhe announced that he had left the PPRD and had formed his own Congolese National Union (UNC) party, which nominated Kamerhe as its presidential candidate in 2011. Other parties include Forces du Futur (FDF), Forces Novatrices pour l'Union et la Solidarite (FONUS), Parti Democrate Social Chretien (PDSC), Mouvement Social Democratie et Developpement (MSDD), Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution — Fait Prive (MPR-FP), Union des Nationalistes et des Federalistes Congolais (UNAFEC), and Mouvement National Congolais/ Lumumba (MNC/L). Former rebel movements-turned-political parties include the Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie (RCD), Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo (MLC), and independent splinter groups of the RCD (RCD/ML, RCD/N, RCD/G). The former rebel group Congres National pour la Defense du Peuple (CNDP) received official status as a political party in May 2009 and joined the former presidential coalition AMP in September 2010.
Suffrage: 18 years of age and universal.
GDP (2010): $13.1 billion.
Annual GDP growth rate (2010): 6.1%.
Per capita GDP (2010): $189.
Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, diamonds, gold, other minerals; petroleum; wood; hydroelectric potential.
Agriculture: Cash crops: coffee, rubber, palm oil, cotton, cocoa, sugar, tea. Food crops — manioc, corn, legumes, plantains, peanuts.
Land use: Agriculture 3%; pasture 7%; forest/woodland 77%; other 13%.
Industry: Types: processed and unprocessed minerals; consumer products, including textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes, metal products; processed foods and beverages, cement, timber.
Currency: Congolese franc (FC). The U.S. dollar is also used as legal tender.
Trade: Exports (2010): $7.5 billion. Products — diamonds, gold, cobalt, copper, coffee, petroleum, wood. Main partners — EU, Japan, South Africa, U.S., China. Imports (2010) — $7.0 billion. Products — consumer goods (food, textiles), capital equipment, refined petroleum products. Partners — EU, China, South Africa, U.S.
Official debt (2010 est.): $3.9 billion.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) includes the greater part of the Congo River basin, which covers an area of almost one million square kilometers (400,000 sq. mi.). The country's only outlet to the Atlantic Ocean is a narrow strip of land on the north bank of the Congo River.
The vast, low-lying central area is a basin-shaped plateau sloping toward the west and covered by tropical rainforest. This area is surrounded by mountainous terraces in the west, plateaus merging into savannas in the south and southwest, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Congo River in the north. High mountains are found in the extreme eastern region.
The DRC lies on the Equator, with one-third of the country to the north and two-thirds to the south. The climate is hot and humid in the river basin and cool and dry in the southern highlands. South of the Equator, the rainy season lasts from October to May and north of the Equator, from April to November. Along the Equator, rainfall is fairly regular throughout the year. During the wet season, thunderstorms often are violent but seldom last more than a few hours. The average annual rainfall for the entire country is about 107 centimeters (42 in.).
The population of the DRC was estimated at 71 million in 2011. As many as 250 ethnic groups have been distinguished and named. Some of the larger groups are the Kongo, Luba, and Anamongo. Although 700 local languages and dialects are spoken, the linguistic variety is bridged both by the use of French and the national languages Kikongo, Tshiluba, Kiswahili, and Lingala.
About 70% of the Congolese population is Christian, predominantly Roman Catholic. Most of the non-Christians adhere to either traditional religions or syncretic sects. Traditional religions include concepts such as monotheism, animism, vitalism, spirit and ancestor worship, witchcraft and sorcery, and vary widely among ethnic groups; none is formalized. The syncretic sects often merge Christianity with traditional beliefs and rituals. The most popular of these sects, Kimbanguism, was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians. Kimbanguism, officially "the church of Christ on Earth by the prophet Simon Kimbangu," now claims about 3 million members, primarily among the Bakongo tribe of Bas-Congo Province and Kinshasa. In 1969, it became the first independent African church admitted to the World Council of Churches.
Before independence in 1960, education was largely in the hands of religious groups. The primary school system was well developed at independence; however, the secondary school system was limited, and higher education was almost nonexistent in most regions of the country. The principal objective of this system was to train low-level administrators and clerks. Since independence, efforts have been made to increase access to education, and secondary and higher education have been made available to many more Congolese. According to estimates made in 2007, 21% of the population had no schooling, 46% had primary schooling, 30% had secondary schooling, and 3% had university schooling. At all levels of education, males greatly outnumber females. The largest state-run universities are the University of Kinshasa, the University of Lubumbashi, and the University of Kisangani. The elite continue to send their children abroad to be educated, primarily in Western Europe.
The area known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 10,000 years ago and settled in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. by Bantus from present-day Nigeria. Portuguese navigator Diego Cao was the first European known to have visited the area (in 1482), and English journalist Henry Morton Stanley later explored much of the region in the mid to late 19th century. The area was officially colonized in 1885 as a personal possession of Belgian King Leopold II as the Congo Free State. In 1907, administration shifted to the Belgian Government, which renamed the country the Belgian Congo. Following a series of riots and unrest, the Belgian Congo gained its independence on June 30, 1960. Parliamentary elections in 1960 produced Patrice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president of the renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Mobutu Era
The Mobutu Era
Within the first year of independence, several events destabilized the country: the army mutinied; the governor of Katanga Province attempted secession; a UN peacekeeping force was called in to restore order; Prime Minister Lumumba died under mysterious circumstances; and Col. Joseph Desire Mobutu (later Mobutu Sese Seko) took over the government and ceded it again to President Kasavubu.
Unrest and rebellion plagued the government until 1965, when Mobutu, by then a lieutenant general and commander-in-chief of the national army, again seized control of the country and declared himself president for 5 years. Mobutu quickly centralized power into his own hands and was elected unopposed as president in 1970.
Embarking on a campaign of cultural awareness, Mobutu renamed the country the Republic of Zaire and required citizens to adopt African names. Relative peace and stability prevailed until 1977 and 1978 when Katangan rebels, staged in Angola, launched a series of invasions into the Katanga region. The rebels were driven out with the aid of Belgian, Moroccan and French paratroopers.
During the 1980s, Mobutu continued to enforce his one-party system of rule. Although Mobutu successfully maintained control during this period, opposition parties, most notably the Union pour la Democratie et le Progres Social (UDPS), were active. Mobutu's attempts to quell these groups drew significant international criticism.
As the Cold War came to a close, internal and external pressures on Mobutu increased. In late 1989 and early 1990, Mobutu was weakened by a series of domestic protests, heightened international criticism of his regime's human rights practices, and a faltering economy. In April 1990, Mobutu agreed to the principle of a multi-party system with elections and a constitution. As details of a reform package were delayed, soldiers in September 1991 began looting Kinshasa to protest their unpaid wages. Two thousand French and Belgian troops, some of whom were flown in on U.S. Air Force planes, arrived to evacuate the 20,000 endangered foreign nationals in Kinshasa. Soldiers went on a similar rampage in January 1993.
In 1992, after previous similar attempts, the long-promised Sovereign National Conference was staged, encompassing more than 2,000 representatives from various political parties. The conference gave itself a legislative mandate and elected Archbishop Laurent Monsengwo as its chairman, along with Etienne Tshisekedi, leader of the UDPS, as prime minister. By the end of the year Mobutu had created a rival government with its own prime minister. The ensuing stalemate produced a compromise merger of the two governments into the High Council of the Republic-Parliament of Transition (HCR-PT) in 1994, with Mobutu as head of state and Leon Kengo Wa Dondo as prime minister. Although presidential and legislative elections were scheduled repeatedly over the next 2 years, they never took place.
Beginning in late 1994, the war and genocide in neighboring Rwanda spilled over to Zaire. Rwandan Hutu militia forces (Interahamwe), who fled Rwanda following the ascension of a Tutsi-led government, used Hutu refugee camps in eastern Zaire as bases for incursions against Rwanda.
In October 1996, Rwandan troops (RPA) entered Zaire, simultaneously with the formation of an armed coalition led by Laurent-Desire Kabila known as the Alliance des Forces Democratiques pour la Liberation du Congo-Zaire (AFDL). With the goal of forcibly ousting Mobutu, the AFDL, supported by Rwanda and Uganda, began a military campaign toward Kinshasa. Following failed peace talks between Mobutu and Kabila in May 1997, Mobutu left the country.
From Dictatorship to Disintegration
From Dictatorship to Disintegration
Laurent-Desire Kabila marched into Kinshasa on May 17, 1997 and declared himself president. He consolidated power around himself and the AFDL and renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Kabila's Army Chief and the Secretary General of the AFDL were Rwandan, and RPA units continued to operate tangentially with the DRC's military, which was renamed the Forces Armees Congolaises (FAC).
Over the next year, relations between Kabila and his foreign backers deteriorated. In July 1998, Kabila ordered all foreign troops to leave the DRC Most refused to leave. On August 2, nationwide fighting erupted as Rwandan troops in the DRC "mutinied," and fresh Rwandan and Ugandan troops entered the country. Two days later, Rwandan troops flew to Bas-Congo, with the intention of marching on Kinshasa, ousting Kabila, and replacing him with the newly formed Rwandan-backed rebel group called the Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie (RCD). The Rwandan campaign was thwarted at the last minute when Angolan, Zimbabwean, and Namibian troops intervened on behalf of the DRC Government. The Rwandans and the RCD withdrew to eastern DRC, where they established de facto control over portions of eastern DRC and continued to fight the Congolese army and its foreign allies.
In February 1999, Uganda backed the formation of a rebel group called the Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo (MLC), which drew support from among ex-Mobutuists and ex-Zairian soldiers in Equateur Province (Mobutu's home province). Together, Uganda and the MLC established control over the northern third of the DRC
At this stage, the DRC was divided de facto into three segments — one controlled by Laurent Kabila, one controlled by Rwanda, and one controlled by Uganda — and the parties had reached military deadlock. In July 1999, a cease-fire was proposed in Lusaka, Zambia, which all parties signed by the end of August. The Lusaka Accord called for a cease-fire, the deployment of a UN peacekeeping operation, the withdrawal of foreign troops, and the launching of an "Inter-Congolese Dialogue" to form a transitional government leading to elections. The parties to the Lusaka Accord failed to fully implement its provisions in 1999 and 2000. Laurent Kabila drew increasing international criticism for blocking full deployment of UN troops, hindering progress toward an Inter-Congolese Dialogue, and suppressing internal political activity.
On January 16, 2001, Laurent Kabila was assassinated, allegedly by a member of his personal bodyguard corps who was in turn killed by an aide-de-camp. Kabila was succeeded by his son Joseph, who reversed many of his father's negative policies. Over the next year, the UN peacekeeping mission in the DRC (United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, known by its French acronym MONUC) deployed throughout the country, and the Inter-Congolese Dialogue proceeded. By the end of 2002, all Angolan, Namibian, and Zimbabwean troops had withdrawn from the DRC Following DRC-Rwanda talks in South Africa that culminated in the Pretoria Accord in July 2002, Rwandan troops officially withdrew from the DRC in October 2002. However, there were continued, unconfirmed reports that Rwandan soldiers and military advisers remained integrated with the forces of an RCD splinter group (RCD/G) in eastern DRC Ugandan troops officially withdrew from the DRC in May 2003.
National Dialogue, Transitional Government, and Nascent Democracy
In October 2001, the Inter-Congolese Dialogue began in Addis Ababa under the auspices of Facilitator Ketumile Masire (former president of Botswana). The initial meetings made little progress and were adjourned. On February 25, 2002, the dialogue was reconvened in South Africa. It included representatives from the government, rebel groups, political opposition, civil society, and Mai-Mai groups (Congolese local defense militias). The talks ended inconclusively on April 19, 2002, when the government and the MLC brokered an agreement that was signed by the majority of delegates at the dialogue but left out the RCD/G and opposition UDPS party, among others.
This partial agreement was never implemented, and negotiations resumed in South Africa in October 2002. This time, the talks led to an all-inclusive agreement, which was signed by delegates in Pretoria on December 17, 2002, and formally ratified by all parties on April 2, 2003. That same day, a transitional constitution was adopted.
Following nominations by each of the various signatory groups, President Joseph Kabila on June 30, 2003 issued a decree that formally announced the transitional government lineup. Four vice presidents (each representing a specific party, faction, or region) took their oaths of office on July 17, 2003, and most incoming ministers assumed their new functions within days thereafter.
During the transitional government period, President Joseph Kabila made significant progress in liberalizing domestic political activity and undertaking economic reforms in cooperation with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, serious human rights problems remained in the security services and justice system.
In December 2005, roughly two-thirds of eligible Congolese voters participated in a referendum that resulted in approval of a new constitution. This constitution entered into force in February 2006. Extensive executive, legislative, and military powers are vested in the president. The legislature does not have the power to overturn the government through a vote of no confidence. The judiciary is only nominally independent. The president, in consultation with the Conseil Superieur de la Magistrature (supreme judicial council; CSM), has the power to dismiss and appoint judges. The president is head of a cabinet of ministers. The current cabinet, following a reshuffle in September 2011, has 36 ministers.
On July 30, 2006 the DRC held its first free, democratic, multi-party elections in more than 40 years. Over 25 million registered voters cast ballots for president (from among 33 candidates) and National Assembly deputies (from among over 9,500 candidates vying for 500 seats). Voter turnout was over 70%, and despite technical and logistical difficulties as well as isolated incidents of violence and intimidation, the elections were largely calm and orderly. International observers also judged them to have been credible. According to the DRC's Independent Electoral Commission (CEI) incumbent President Kabila won 44.81% of the vote, compared to 20.3% for Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba, his nearest challenger. Hours after these tallies were released, the Gombe area of central Kinshasa saw clashes between militias loyal to these two candidates. With no one winning a majority, a second round was held on October 29; Kabila beat Bemba by a margin of 58% to 42% and was inaugurated on December 6, 2006, to a 5-year term.
The National Assembly elections held simultaneously with the July 2006 first presidential round resulted in the election of 500 deputies representing 169 electoral districts. Winners in multiple-seat districts (approximately two-thirds of the total districts) were determined based on a complex formula involving the percentages of overall votes cast for a given party and proportional representation using open party lists. Like the president, National Assembly deputies serve 5-year terms. Unlike the president, however, they are not term-limited. The National Assembly held its first session on September 22, 2006. Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga and his cabinet formally took office the following February. In May 2007, Kengo Wa Dondo was elected Senate President. In September 2008, Antoine Gizenga resigned for reasons of age and ill health. On October 10, 2008, President Kabila named Adolphe Muzito to succeed him. Muzito in turn appointed a new cabinet of ministers with a total of 37 ministerial positions. On February 22, 2010, President Kabila reshuffled his cabinet, with particular emphasis on his economic and finance team. The latest reshuffle occurred in September 2011.
The DRC's July 2006 elections presented significant organizational challenges. The presidential and legislative ballots were printed in South Africa and altogether weighed nearly 1,800 tons, requiring 75 round-trip flights between the DRC and South Africa. The CEI, greatly supported by the MONUC peacekeeping mission, ran more than 50,000 polling stations nationwide and employed some 300,000 poll workers on election day and to oversee the ballot-counting process. In July 2010, President Kabila signed into law the establishment of a permanent National Independent Electoral Commission (CENI) to replace the transitional CEI. The CENI formally succeeded the CEI in February 2011. Presidential and parliamentary elections are scheduled for November 28, 2011. Provincial assembly elections are slated for April 2012. Local elections have been tentatively scheduled for late 2012 and early 2013.
After operating in the DRC as MONUC for 10 years, the UN, at the Congolese Government's insistence, altered its mission as of July 1, 2010, renaming it the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). Established under UN Security Council Resolution 1925, MONUSCO differed from MONUC in its enhanced cooperative relationship with the DRC Government, its coordinated, regional approach to counter threats posed by armed groups in the country, and its stated logistical role in assisting the DRC in its electoral activities, all designed to stabilize what MONUC's peacekeeping operations had accomplished. On June 30, 2010, MONUSCO was inaugurated on the 50th anniversary of the DRC's independence from Belgium with a largely symbolic drawdown of some 1,500 troops from MONUC's forces.
Principal Government Officials
Principal Government Officials
President: Joseph Kabila
Prime Minister: Adolphe Muzito
Foreign Minister: Alexis Thambwe Mwamba
Defense Minister: Charles Mwando Nsimba
Finance Minister: Matata Ponyo Mapon
Minister of International and Regional Cooperation: Raymond Tshibanda
The Kabila administration identified five areas requiring particular attention: education, health, infrastructure, water/electricity, and job creation. These five areas are often referred to as "les cinq chantiers" in French ("The Five Pillars"). The government has made limited progress in these areas, however, due in large part to continuing insecurity and intermittent returns to armed conflict in several eastern provinces, particularly North and South Kivu and the Ituri, Bas-Uele, and Haut-Uele Districts of Orientale Province. A number of illegal Congolese and foreign militias have operated largely with impunity in these areas since before the overthrow of Mobutu in early 1997. Their relative strength and influence have waxed and waned over time, but two are of particular importance to the current situation: the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), led by individuals involved in perpetrating the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, and the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), a Congolese group, which ostensibly agreed to integrate into the DRC military (FARDC). These groups — the first predominantly Hutu, the second predominantly Tutsi — have fought each other and the FARDC, illegally exploited and exported DRC natural resources to fund their weapons, and committed gross human rights violations (including indiscriminate killings, sexual and gender-based violence - including mass rapes, mutilations, and forced child soldier recruitment) in the areas under their control.
On January 23, 2008, the Government of the DRC and over 20 Congolese armed groups (including the CNDP) signed a peace accord in Goma, North Kivu Province, under which they agreed on the need for an immediate cessation of hostilities, the disengagement of troops, improved adherence to human rights standards, and the creation of UN buffer zones between and among the various factions. Between January and August 2008, most of the parties worked to implement the Goma Accords' provisions, albeit with regular cease-fire violations. In late August 2008, intense fighting began again between the CNDP and the FARDC in the southern part of North Kivu Province, also called the "Petit Nord." Over the next 4 months, this fighting resulted in the internal displacement of a quarter million residents of North Kivu and led some 40,000 to flee into Uganda. Hundreds of people were killed, and by late October 2008, Laurent Nkunda's CNDP forces — much stronger and better disciplined than the Congolese military — got to within a few miles of Goma before declaring a unilateral cease-fire. During this period, the United States, European Union, and United Nations all worked to develop plans for a lasting peace, and seek adherence to past agreements, but progress was slow.
By January 2009, a dramatic series of events significantly altered the political-military landscape in the Petit Nord. Infighting within the CNDP leadership led to a schism in which Nkunda's military chief of staff staged a de facto internal coup and then signed an agreement with the DRC Government to integrate his forces into the FARDC. A smaller but also dangerous militia group, PARECO, made a similar commitment. Meanwhile, the governments of the DRC and Rwanda, which had been engaged in the gradual pursuit of rapprochement over several months, announced plans for Rwandan forces to enter the DRC and join with the Congolese military in a concerted effort to eliminate the FDLR once and for all. On January 20, 2009, several thousand Rwandan soldiers crossed into the DRC for the third time in 12 years, but this time at the invitation of the Congolese Government in Kinshasa. Two days later, Laurent Nkunda fled into Rwanda, where Rwandan officials took him into custody. He remains in custody, pending the resolution of Rwandan court proceedings. Between January 20 and the end of February 2009, the joint Rwandan-Congolese-CNDP-PARECO coalition of forces pressured the FDLR, engaged in a small number of battles with FDLR units, and convinced several hundred FDLR members and their families to return voluntarily to Rwanda. On February 25, 2009, the Rwandan forces left the DRC
On March 23, 2009, the Government of the DRC signed separate peace agreements with (1) the CNDP, (2) the North Kivu armed groups, and (3) the South Kivu armed groups. The rebel groups agreed to transform their movements from military to political entities, while the government promised to work toward integrating rebel soldiers and officials into the FARDC, national police, and national and local political and administrative units. Many details of the agreements still require implementation, but the CNDP has already been registered as a political party, and various other rebel groups have declared their intention to establish political parties. The FARDC, with support from MONUC, offered ex-combatants the opportunity to undergo "accelerated integration" into the national army, a process that was less thorough than traditional integration but allowed for more expeditious demobilization of rebel forces. As part of the peace agreements, parliament passed and the president signed an amnesty law that pardoned people for crimes committed in the eastern DRC during the fighting, other than crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Late 2010 and early 2011 saw an increasing number of Mai Mai and other rebel groups similarly opt for negotiated surrender that includes FARDC integration.
The FARDC, with MONUC support, launched Operation Kimia II, a military operation against the FDLR in North and South Kivu in May 2009 and July 2009, respectively. Kimia II, which ended on December 31, 2009, registered some noticeable success, including pushing the bulk of the FDLR away from population centers and money-making enterprises, notably illegal mining. In addition, according to MONUC, in 2009 (roughly the same time period as Kimia II), 1,114 FDLR members were killed, and 1,522 FDLR combatants and 2,187 of their dependents were repatriated to Rwanda. However, human rights violations by the FDLR and by undisciplined FARDC elements increased during Kimia II operations. MONUC estimated that as many as 1,714 civilians were killed during the military operation. A follow-on operation, Amani Leo, was launched by the FARDC and MONUC in January 2010. Amani Leo has been more selective in its targets, as well as concentrating on holding re-captured territory and developing state institutions and authority in these areas. In July 2010, Amani Leo operations successfully targeted the camps of Allied Democratic Forces-National Army for the Liberarion of Uganda (ADF-NALU), a Ugandan rebel group, which was operating along the Ugandan border in the northern Beni District of North Kivu. However, since early 2011, ADF/NALU has regained strength and continues to instigate insecurity in North Kivu and is considered by both DRC and Uganda as a threat to civilians. Nevertheless, the continued proliferation of newly-formed, loosely-organized, and less politically motivated local militia groups (Mai Mai) remains a menace to the fragile situation in North and South Kivu. Curbing random acts of violence targeting civilians, particularly those living in the remote, largely inaccessible, and densely forested regions of the provinces, perpetrated by both FDLR remnants and assorted Mai Mai groups continues to be a challenge for FARDC and MONUSCO.
Beginning in late 2010, the defection or capture of significant FDLR commanders, coupled with the arrests in France and Germany of key FDLR political leaders, dealt the organization a decisive blow. While a number of FDLR stalwarts have increased the scale and intensity of their attacks, many of the rank and file have surrendered to MONUSCO and have offered to be demoblilized or integrated into the FARDC. According to MONUSCO, systematic GDRC and MONUSCO military operations have reduced the FDLR's number by half and weakened them. However, FDLR remains a real threat.
The northeastern DRC has also been the scene of fighting as the FARDC has engaged a Ugandan rebel group, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), that operates in the DRC Since 1987, the LRA, led by Joseph Kony, has waged an on-again, off-again insurgency against the Ugandan Government from bases in southern Sudan and, since 2005, in the DRC The group is infamous for its brutal attacks on local populations, including looting, rapes, mutilations, and killings. It abducts young boys to serve as child soldiers and girls as sex slaves and porters. On December 15, 2008, the governments of Uganda, the DRC and southern Sudan launched a joint military operation, Operation Lightning Thunder, to capture or kill senior LRA commanders. The operation was launched after it became clear to regional governments that Kony was not interested in signing a UN-negotiated peace agreement. The DRC Government authorized troops from the Ugandan People's Defense Force (UPDF) to enter the DRC. The operation officially ended in March 2009 when the majority of UPDF troops withdrew from the DRC A small residual UPDF element remains to support Operation Rudia II, a follow-on operation by FARDC and MONUSCO jointly targeting the LRA. These operations — Lightning Thunder and Rudia II — have succeeded in killing or capturing some LRA commanders, as well as dispersing the LRA into much smaller different groupings, thus significantly limiting its ability to carry out major fighting. However, the LRA is still committing gross human rights violations in the region (including the southeastern-most part of the Central African Republic) and Kony, who is wanted by the International Criminal Court, remains at large. In December 2009, the LRA massacred 321 inhabitants of villages in the Haut-Uele district of Orientale Province during a 4-day period. The LRA attacked a series of Haut-Uele villages in February 2010. The group continues to pose a threat to those inhabitants of the sparsely populated region along the Sudanese and C.A.R. border and in and around Garamba National Park. After a period in which the LRA seemed to predominate in C.A.R. and southern Sudan, early 2011 saw the LRA return to northern DRC with Increased activity, especially around larger population areas in Haut-Uele. The number of attacks attributed to the LRA reached a high point in June, but have decreased in the months since.
Fighting erupted in the western province of Equateur in late October to early November 2009 between two rival clans over a long-standing fishing dispute. Combatants from the Enyele clan killed approximately 45 police officers who had been sent to the region to restore order. The government responded by deploying a special, Belgian-trained brigade to the area, and MONUC shifted some of its resources to Equateur to assist. Over 120,000 Congolese fled into the neighboring Republic of the Congo and approximately 20,000 into the Central African Republic. There are over 30,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the region. Humanitarian assistance to IDPs remains difficult because of geographical obstacles and fears of renewed fighting. On April 4, 2010, a group of Enyele rebels attacked the provincial capital of Mbandaka, killing at least 16 people, after hijacking a riverboat. They held the airport for some 24 hours before the arrival of MONUC soldiers. There were reports of FARDC reprisals and extrajudicial killings in the days that followed. The ensuing violence caused further refugee movement across the Ubangi River into Republic of the Congo. In June 2010, Enyele leader Udjani Mangbama was captured and arrested by Republic of the Congo authorities and, to date, remains in the DRC Following Udjani's arrest, the fighting has largely abated and the government security forces appear to have restored a modicum of security to the impoverished Equateur region. The two rival clans, Enyele and Monzaya, have recently reconciled.
Internal conflict in the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu, as well as in the LRA-affected areas in the Haut- Uele and Bas-Uele Districts of Orientale Province has an extremely negative effect on security and human rights. Armed groups continue to commit numerous, serious abuses with impunity — some of which may constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity — including unlawful killings, disappearances, mass rape, and torture. They also recruit and retain child soldiers and compel forced labor. Mass rapes are becoming a common method of intimidation and revenge in eastern Congo with members of both the national army and armed rebel groups perpetrating the violence.
Members of illegal armed groups, the FARDC, and the police were responsible for 81% of all reported cases of sexual violence in conflict zones and 24% in non-conflict areas. While many of the armed rapes occur in the east, sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is pervasive throughout the DRC The lack of gender equality puts women and girls at a disadvantage both economically and socially. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) reported 12,838 cases of sexual violence for both adults and children in North and South Kivu and Province Orientale in 2009 with a total of 17,507 cases across the entire. An estimated 50% of rape victims do not have access to medical treatment and less than 2% of the cases are brought to court. The 2006 sexual violence law is effective in principle, and while there are generally few instances of prosecution, there have been several high-profile cases in Fizi and Kalehe where FARDC troops have been arrested, tried, and sentenced for rape. Although a general is currently on trial for rape, impunity is still a significant factor in the lack of prosecutions, particularly for high-ranking military officials.
Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) and Refugees
Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) and Refugees
As of December 2010, there were a total of 1.6 million IDPs in the DRC The majority (approx. 1.25 million) are found in North and South Kivu. The overwhelming majority of these IDPs resulted directly or indirectly from armed conflict in the region. Additional IDPs are present in Orientale Province, Equateur Province, and northern Katanga. According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), there are nearly 404,000 Congolese refugees hosted in the DRC's eight neighboring countries and in other areas. There are 123,000 refugees in the Republic of Congo as a result of interethnic conflict in November 2009 in Equateur. The DRC is currently host to an estimated 160,000 refugees from seven neighboring countries.
Sparsely populated in relation to its area, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is home to vast natural resources and mineral wealth. Nevertheless, the DRC is one of the poorest countries in the world, with per capita annual income of about U.S. $189 in 2010. This is the result of years of mismanagement, corruption, and war. Agriculture is the mainstay of the Congolese economy, accounting for 42.5% of GDP in 2007.
The main cash crops include coffee, palm oil, rubber, cotton, sugar, tea, and cocoa. Food crops include cassava, plantains, maize, groundnuts, and rice. However, commercial agricultural production or processing remains limited, with many producers engaged in subsistence food production. Industry accounted for 28.4% of GDP in 2007, of which 6.4% was from manufacturing, and services accounted for 29.1% of GDP in 2007. The export of goods and services constituted 28.2% of GDP in 2007. The DRC's formal economy is dominated by the mining sector. Minerals account for the vast majority of the DRC's exports and represent the single largest source of foreign direct investment (FDI). Copper, cobalt, gold, coltan, tin, and zinc are the big metals being mined and produced in the DRC. The DRC's main copper and cobalt interests are dominated by Gecamines, the state-owned mining giant. Gecamines' independent production capacity has been severely affected by corruption, civil unrest, world market trends, and failure to reinvest profits toward routine maintenance and innovation. Gecamines is now most often a state partner in public-private mining partnerships with foreign companies. The diamond sector currently accounts for about 10% of the DRC's export revenue. This is from both gem and industrial-grade diamond sales that were around $875 million in 2008 and were projected to approach an estimated $1 billion in 2009. Production by the DRC parastatal, MIBA, has significantly declined from past decades; operations stopped during 2009 due to technical and financial difficulties. MIBA is currently working to restructure its operations and administration. Nearly all diamond production in the DRC is artisanal and takes place in the Kasai regions.
For decades, corruption and misguided policy have fostered a clandestine economy in the DRC Individuals and businesses in the formal sector operated with high costs under arbitrarily enforced laws. As a consequence, the informal sector now dominates the economy. In order to combat corruption, in September 2009, President Kabila launched a "zero-tolerance" campaign. Within this framework, he established the DRC Financial Intelligence Unit to combat money laundering and misappropriation of public funds.
In recent years, the Congolese Government approved a new investment code and a new mining code and designed a new commercial court. The goal of these initiatives was to attract investment by promising fair and transparent treatment to private business. The DRC Government recently established an inter-ministerial committee called the "Steering Committee for Investment and Business Climate Improvement" to support reforms that would improve the business climate. In December 2009, the Congolese parliament approved a law authorizing the DRC's accession to the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA), and President Kabila promulgated this law in February 2010. The Government of the DRC officially launched the National OHADA Commission in April 2010. The DRC expected to sign and deposit the instrument of OHADA accession by November 2010, and the OHADA treaty was supposed to take effect in the DRC on January 1, 2011. However, President Kabila ordered that judges be trained in the OHADA law first before signing and depositing the instrument of OHADA accession. As of January 2011, no new date had been given for depositing the instrument of OHADA accession. Other measures undertaken by the Government of the DRC to improve the business and investment climate include President Kabila's promulgation of a new customs code and new law related to the value-added tax (VAT) in August 2010. The new customs code took effect on February 20, 2011. In 2007, shortly after the Joseph Kabila administration took office, the government launched a wholesale review of mining contracts that had been entered into from 1997-2002. In theory, the purpose of this contract review was to determine which negotiations may have been colored by corruption and revisit/renegotiate their terms as needed. In practice, this process itself was opaque and plagued with numerous delays, with little information provided by the government to foreign (including American) investors. The Government of the DRC reached agreement in December 2008 with the vast majority of the companies under review and formally announced the completion of the process in November 2009. In October 2010, the Government of the DRC reached agreement with the final remaining company, a U.S. investor.
Effects of the World Financial Crisis
Effects of the World Financial Crisis
The DRC's economic environment changed dramatically beginning in late 2008 and throughout 2009 as the country was significantly and negatively impacted by the global financial crisis. The once-robust mining sector significantly contracted during late 2008 and early 2009 due to falling international commodities prices, a tightening of international credit, and dampened investor confidence in the sector. GDP growth for 2009 was estimated at only 2.7%, a significant reduction from earlier projections. By early 2009, the DRC was facing a serious fiscal and monetary crisis, with international reserves near zero and the exchange rate rapidly deteriorating. The international community responded quickly to the DRC's deteriorating economic situation by providing emergency financial assistance, including from the IMF (U.S. $200 million), the World Bank (U.S. $100 million), and the African Development Bank (U.S. $97 million). The European Union and Belgium also provided emergency assistance. This assistance helped stabilize the economy and ensure the continuation of basic services. With the support of international emergency assistance and improved prices for key export commodities, the DRC's macroeconomic situation has stabilized and the economy has recovered significantly. GDP growth for 2010 was 6.1% and is projected to be 6.8% in 2011.
Economic and Structural Reforms
Economic and Structural Reforms
The Government of the DRC continues to build on economic reforms initiated in 2001 aimed at stabilizing the macroeconomic situation and promoting economic growth. Reforms included liberalization of petroleum prices and exchange rates and adoption of disciplined fiscal and monetary policies. These policies have been successful in reducing inflation and supporting the resumption and acceleration of economic growth since 2002. The DRC's economy grew by 5.6% in 2006, 6.32% in 2007, and 6.15% in 2008. Inflation was reduced from over 501% in 2001 to approximately 27.6% in 2008. As a result of unexpected internal and external economic shocks in 2009, the annual inflation rate stood at 53.44% in 2009. However, inflation was significantly reduced during 2010 and the annualized rate was estimated at less than 10%.
The DRC's development framework includes implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), approved in mid-2006 by the IMF and World Bank boards, and the government's 5-year program, approved by the National Assembly in February 2007. The 5-year program, known as the five pillars or "cinq chantiers" in French, is based on the PRSP and focuses heavily on President Kabila's five priority areas: infrastructure; employment; education; water/electricity; and health. Many donors had disengaged from the DRC prior to 2002.
Paris Club creditors suspended interim debt relief when the DRC failed to complete its sixth IMF review in 2006 due to fiscal slippages and slow implementation of key structural reforms. In early 2008, the Government of the DRC concluded a U.S. $9.2 billion minerals-for-infrastructure agreement with the Chinese Government. Under pressure from international financial institutions and donors concerned about the potential negative effect of this deal on the DRC's debt burden, the Government of the DRC and the Chinese amended the agreement in November 2009, reducing the overall value of the agreement by $3 billion among other changes. As a result, the IMF Board of Directors approved on December 11, 2009, a new, 3-year Extended Credit Facility (ECF) program. Paris Club creditors, including the United States, agreed in February 2010 to resume interim debt relief for the DRC On July 1, 2010, the DRC reached the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) completion point following a determination by the IMF and World Bank boards that the DRC had successfully implemented the policy measures ("triggers") under the program. Debt relief will help alleviate the DRC's official debt burden (estimated at U.S. $13.5 billion), and provide critically needed resources for poverty-reducing programs.
Natural Resource Exploitation
Natural Resource Exploitation
In June 2000, the United Nations established a Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Congolese Resources to examine links between the wars and natural resource exploitation. Reports issued by the panel indicated that countries involved in the war in Congo developed significant economic interests in the DRC that complicated Congolese Government efforts to control its resources and the mining sector. Although the original Panel of Experts was disbanded when its mandate ended in late 2003, a separate UN Group of Experts continued to look into these issues due to the apparent links between the illegal armed groups in the eastern part of the DRC and natural resource exploitation. The Group of Experts published a report in December 2008 that documented how armed groups in eastern DRC finance their activities through the exploitation of natural resources and provided evidence of the collaboration and support of Rwandan authorities and the Government of the DRC in supporting such groups. In November 2009, the Group of Experts issued a new report, which stated that armed groups in eastern DRC continue to engage in the illegal extraction of minerals to finance their activities. The report also documented that these armed rebel groups, in particular the FDLR, as well as members of the FARDC, continue to engage in human rights abuses, including attacks against civilians.
In 2008, the DRC became a candidate country for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), a multi-stakeholder effort to increase transparency in transactions between governments and companies in the extractive industries. Though the Government of the DRC took some positive steps under EITI, including establishment of a National EITI Committee, publication of the first report on EITI in the DRC, and the hiring of an independent auditor to carry out the validation of the EITI process, the DRC did not meet its March 9, 2010 validation deadline. The EITI Secretariat granted the DRC a 6-month extension (until September 9, 2010) to complete validation. The report was subsequently validated by the independent auditor, approved by the National EITI Committee and transmitted to the President of the International EITI Secretariat in Berlin, Germany on September 8, 2010. The validation of the first EITI report was hailed as an important step toward improving transparency and accountability in DRC's management of natural resources. On December 14, 2010, the EITI Board designated the DRC as a candidate country that is "close to compliant" and gave the DRC 6 months (until June 12, 2011) to complete the remaining steps in order to achieve "compliant" status. However, the DRC did not meet its requirements and has been given an 18-month extension until March 2013 by which it must become compliant or withdraw from EITI consideration.
A number of initiatives have been launched at the national, regional, and international level to promote greater control and transparency of the minerals trade in eastern DRC The U.S. Financial Reform Act of 2010 contains provisions related to minerals sourced in the DRC Specifically, these provisions require companies whose products contain certain minerals to disclose to U.S. regulators whether they are sourcing these materials from the DRC or its neighbors. They must also document their due diligence to ensure that their sourcing arrangements are not benefiting armed groups.
The DRC's large size and strategic location in the center of Africa, as well as its vast mineral wealth, have made the country a key regional player since even before independence. The DRC's relations with its neighbors have often been driven by security concerns, leading to intricate, interlocking, and shifting alliances. The complexities and dangers of these relations were never clearer than in the 1997-2003 period described in the "From Dictatorship to Disintegration" section above. In addition, internal conflicts in Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Rwanda, Sudan, and Uganda have at various times created bilateral and regional tensions.
Over the past seven years, the DRC Government has signed agreements with its neighbors to improve the security of the DRC and the wider region. In October 2004, with significant U.S. involvement and facilitation, the DRC joined with Rwanda and Uganda in signing a Great Lakes regional security agreement that established a "Tripartite Commission" to address issues peacefully rather than militarily. (Burundi joined a year later and the expanded agreement is now known as "Tripartite Plus.") In September 2007, the DRC and Uganda signed the so-called "Ngurdoto Agreement" committing to strong bilateral efforts to eliminate all illegal armed groups operating in and between the two countries. In November 2007, with significant assistance from the UN, United States, and European Union, the DRC reached a similar agreement with Rwanda. Known as the "Nairobi Communique," this accord was designed to lay the groundwork for DRC-Rwandan cooperation to disarm, demobilize, reintegrate and/or repatriate all foreign armed groups operating in the DRC, particularly the ex-FAR/Interahamwe (later the Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda, FDLR).
Following up on enhanced military cooperation with Rwanda and Uganda, the DRC re-established full diplomatic relations with Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda in 2009. President Kabila held bilateral talks with Rwandan President Kagame in January 2009, August 2009, and September 2010. The 2009 meetings were the first heads-of-state meetings between the DRC and Rwanda in over 10 years. Relations with Angola had been tense, but a recent visit bu President Kabila has eased tensions and given hopes of a lasting rapprochement. The DRC had also established diplomatic relations with its newest neighbor the Republic of South Sudan after the later gained its independence on July 9, 2011.
U.S. relations with the DRC are very strong. The success of the DRC's presidential and parliamentary elections in 2006 was the culmination of the Congolese people's efforts to choose their leaders through a peaceful, democratic process and international support for numerous domestic and international peace agreements. The United States has pursued an active diplomatic strategy in the region and has supported internal reconciliation and democratization in the DRC, facilitating the Nairobi Communique, Goma Accords, and the Tripartite Plus mechanism, all described above.
The United States is proud to have played a role in the peace process in the DRC, and continues to encourage Congolese peace, prosperity, democracy, and respect for human rights. The U.S. Government provided $306 million in bilateral assistance to the DRC in 2010 to support economic reform and transparency efforts. The United States is also the largest donor to the United Nations stabilization mission in the DRC (MONUSCO), contributing almost one-third of MONUSCO's $1 billion annual budget.
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton visited the DRC in August 2009, meeting with President Kabila and other senior officials, civil society representatives, and victims of the current conflicts. The Secretary reinforced the U.S. commitment to help the DRC reduce sexual and gender-based violence and address corruption. AFRICOM Commander General Carter Ham visited the DRC in August 2011 and meet with senior defense officials and underscoring U.S. commitment to assist the DRC establish a long term plan to successfully implement durable security sector reform.
The DRC appointed its current ambassador to the United States in 2000. The State Department has consistently issued cautionary travel information about Zaire/DRC since 1977.
Principal U.S. Officials
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador: James F. Entwistle (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/155385.htm)
Deputy Chief of Mission: Samuel C. Laeuchli
The U.S. Embassy (http://kinshasa.usembassy.gov/) is located at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa (tel. 243-81-2255872; fax 243-81-3010561). Mailing address is American Embassy Kinshasa, Unit 2220, DPO AE 09828.
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