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Bosnia and Herzegovina


Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring...

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Constitutional Arrangements: Previously a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence in March 1992. This triggered a three-year conflict during which the three ethnic groups were at war with each other in varying alliances. The Dayton Peace Agreement, signed on 21 November 1995, put an official end to the fighting.

The Dayton Agreement endorsed the principle that Bosnia and Herzegovina would remain a single state within existing borders. It divided the country into two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Federation), populated mainly by Bosniaks and Croats ...

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Government and Political Conditions: General Government Framework Information and Information Regarding the President and the Cabinet. Under the provisions of the Dayton Peace Accords, the Entities have competencies in areas such as taxation, except indirect taxation, business development, and general legislation. Entities and cantons control their own budgets, spending on infrastructure, health care, and education. Ongoing reforms ...

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International Relations: Relations with Neighbours

Bosnia and Herzegovina's relationship with Croatia has changed substantially since the death of Croatian President Franjo Tuđman in December 1999. In December 2000, the two countries signed a Free Trade Agreement, which was implemented almost immediately. In 2010, Croatian President Ivo Josipović made several official visits to Bosnia and Herzegovina in an effort to improve political relations between the two countries.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's relations with Serbia have improved significantly following the collapse of the Milošević regime in October 2000. Diplomatic ...

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