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Introduction: The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afars minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 following the conclusion of a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multi-party presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH; he was re-elected to a second term in 2005. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the mouth of the Red Sea and serves as an important transshipment...

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History: The Republic of Djibouti gained its independence on June 27, 1977. It is the successor to French Somaliland (later called the French Territory of the Afars and Issas), which was created in the first half of the 19th century as a result of French interest in the Horn of Africa. However, the history of Djibouti, recorded in poetry and songs of its nomadic peoples, goes back thousands of years to a ...

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International Relations: Djibouti hosts the Secretariat of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), which consists of Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda. Relations with Ethiopia centre on Ethiopia’s use of Djibouti port for the major part of its imports and exports. Relations with Eritrea, which had been improving after a difficult patch preceding and during the war between Eritrea and Ethiopia (1998-2000), are now at an all time low after an incursion of Eritrean troops into Djiboutian territory in June 2008, which resulted in 30 Djiboutian dead and over 100 injured. In June 2010, under Qatari mediation, Djibouti and ...

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