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Introduction: Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-Communists and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many...

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Political Overview: Greece is a parliamentary republic, with its national day of independence celebrated on 25 March. The current President, Dr Karolos Papoulias, was sworn in as Greece's President on 12 March 2005, and served a five-year term. He was re-elected to a second and final five-year term on 3 February 2010.

The President has no powers to initiate legislation and is required to appoint as Prime Minister the leader of the political party with an absolute majority of seats in Parliament.

The unicameral parliament consists of 300 members, elected under a system of reinforced proportional representation. Each ...

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History: The Greek War of Independence began in 1821 and concluded in 1830 when England, France, and Russia forced the Ottoman Empire to grant Greece its independence under a European monarch.

At independence, Greece had an area of 47,515 square kilometers (18,346 square mi.), and its northern boundary extended from the Gulf of Volos to the Gulf of Arta. Under the influence of the ...

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International Relations: Greece’s relations with her neighbours

Greece joined NATO in 1952 and the EC (now the EU) in 1981. The main thrust of Greece’s foreign policy in recent years has been consolidating her position in the EU, although Greece’s relations with her immediate neighbours (the Balkans, Turkey and Cyprus) often dominate her foreign policy.


Since Greece won her independence in 1830 from the Turkish Ottoman Empire, there have been problems in the relationship between the two neighbours. Greece and Turkey disagree over rights to the Aegean continental shelf, the extent of Greek ...

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