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Introduction: The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the...

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Economic Overview: The Indian economy comprises a wide spectrum of activity, ranging from high technology to subsistence agriculture. After decades of failing to realise its full economic potential, India has been one of the world's fastest growing large economies in recent decades. Indian economic engagement with the rest of the world has increased, particularly in the services sector.

While selective economic reform was attempted from as early as 1960, the reform process began in earnest in 1991 due to a balance of payments and foreign currency reserve crisis. This reform process has focused on liberalising the economy through increased ...

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History: The people of India have had a continuous civilization since 2500 B.C.E., when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. The Harappan Civilization, as it came to be known, declined around 1500 B.C.E., most likely due to ecological changes.

During the second millennium B.C.E., pastoral, ...

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International Relations: Relations with the UK

Bilateral relations have steadily strengthened over the last two or three years and are now at their healthiest for a very long time. This is reflected in a number of areas, including closeness on current international issues; bilateral trade (£11.5 billion in 2009); increased education links, and a strong development partnership since 2003.

Enhanced Partnership

The UK Government is committed to developing an enhanced partnership with India. The relationship is mutually beneficial and wide ranging – covering commercial ties, education, science, research, ...

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India is a land of ancient civilization, with cities and villages, cultivated fields, and great works of art dating back 4,000 years. India's high population density and variety of social, economic, and cultural configurations are the products of a long process of regional expansion. In the last decade of the twentieth century, such expansion has led to the rapid erosion of India's forest and ...

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Area Handbook Series
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