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Mongolia

WORLD FACTBOOK (US)


Introduction: The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the...

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COUNTRY BRIEF (AU)


Economic Overview: Agriculture, primarily herding, was the traditional basis of the Mongolian economy, and is still important, contributing about 20 per cent of GDP and providing around 40 per cent of national employment. However, services and industry (including mining) have overtaken agriculture in terms of value. Services now account for 49.3 per cent of GDP and industry for 29.5 per cent (including mining with 25 per cent).

Mongolia's economy is small, with total GDP about US$5.8 billion (US$10.3 billion in purchasing-power-parity terms). A third of the population lives below the poverty line. Exports are the major driver of the ...

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BACKGROUND NOTES (US)


History: In 1206 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal groupings under the leadership of Chinggis ("Genghis") Khan. He and his immediate successors conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent armies as far as central Europe and Southeast Asia. Chinggis Khan's grandson Kublai Khan, who conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 AD), gained fame in ...

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COUNTRY PROFILE (UK)


Geography: Mongolia is a landlocked country more than six times the size of the UK located between Russia and China. It is one of the highest countries in the world, with an average elevation of 1,580 metres Ulaanbaatar lies at 1,351 metres above sea level. Geographically the country encompasses six distinct zones: high mountains, steppe, forest steppe, dessert steppe, taiga and desert. The southern third of Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi Desert.

Mongolia has an extreme continental climate with long cold winters and short hot summers, when most of the precipitation falls. Temperatures in the South Gobi range from -40°C in winter ...

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NEWS - MONGOLIA

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COUNTRY STUDIES (US)


Modern Mongolia -- the Mongolian People's Republic -- comprises only about half of the vast Inner Asian region known throughout history as Mongolia. Furthermore, it is only a fraction of the great Mongol Empire of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries that stretched from Korea to Hungary and encompassed nearly all of Asia except the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Because the ...

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Area Handbook Series
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