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New Zealand


Introduction: The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both world wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has...

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Defence Relations: Defence relations between Australia and New Zealand are close and longstanding. Formal expressions of our security partnership are found in the 1944 Canberra Pact and 1951 ANZUS Treaty. The ANZUS Treaty remains in effect between Australia and New Zealand, notwithstanding the United States' suspension of its ANZUS security obligations to New Zealand in August 1986 in response to New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy.

Australia's bilateral defence relationship with New Zealand is underpinned by the Closer Defence Relations Agreement (CDR). The 1991 (revised in 2003 and again in 2008) CDR provides a broad strategic framework for ...

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History: Archaeological evidence indicates that New Zealand was populated by fishing and hunting people of East Polynesian ancestry perhaps 1,000 years before Europeans arrived. Known to some scholars as the Moa-hunters, they may have merged with later waves of Polynesians who, according to Maori tradition, arrived between 952 and 1150. Some of the Maori called their new homeland "Aotearoa," usually ...

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Geography & Demographics: Country Profile

Area: 268,680 sq km (103,737 sq miles)
Population: 4.43 million (December 2011 est.)
Capital city: Wellington
People: European (67.6%), Māori (14.6%), Asian (9.2%), Pacific Islander (6.9%)
Languages: English, Māori, New Zealand Sign Language
Religions: Christianity (55.6%), no religion (34.7%), other (4%)

Located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean, New Zealand consists of two main islands (the North Island and South Island), Stewart Island and a number of smaller islands, including the Auckland, Chatham and Pitt Islands. Its nearest neighbours are Australia, 1,600 ...

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