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Introduction: The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA...

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History: The history of the Philippines can be divided into four distinct phases: the pre-Spanish period (before 1521); the Spanish period (1521-1898); the American period (1898-1946); and the post-independence period (1946-present).

Pre-Spanish Period

The first people in the Philippines, the Negritos, are believed to have come to the islands 30,000 years ago from ...

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International Relations: Relations with the United States remain of major importance to the Philippines. The US is the largest bilateral trading partner and source of foreign investment. Although the US no longer has a permanent military presence in the Philippines, there are annual joint exercises and the US provides support for Philippine counter-terrorism efforts.

China is also increasingly important as both a trading partner and a source of development assistance. There is an established and wealthy Chinese-Filipino community in the Philippines that predates the first Spanish settlement. Chinese interest is welcomed as a counterbalance to US ...

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Negrito, proto-Malay, and Malay peoples were the principal peoples of the Philippine archipelago. The Negritos are believed to have migrated by land bridges some 30,000 years ago, during the last glacial period. Later migrations were by water and took place over several thousand years in repeated movements before and after the start of the Christian era.

The social and ...

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Area Handbook Series
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