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Introduction: Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a...

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Economic Overview: Russia is a vast country with a wealth of natural resources. It is the world's largest exporter of natural gas and second largest exporter of oil, of which it produced about 12 per cent of global supply in 2009. Russia's economy is heavily dependent on these exports. Prior to the global financial crisis, the oil and gas sector generated more than 60 per cent of Russia's export revenues, and accounted for 30 per cent of all foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country.

The Russian economy was severely affected by the spread of the global financial market crisis in 2008 and 2009. Macroeconomic stability was threatened by ...

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History: Although human experience on the territory of present-day Russia dates back to Paleolithic times, the first lineal predecessor of the modern Russian state was founded in 862. The political entity known as Kievan Rus was established in Kiev in 962 and lasted until the 12th century. In the 10th century, Christianity became the state religion under Vladimir, who adopted Greek Orthodox rites. ...

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International Relations: Russia is a member of international institutions such as the UN Security Council, the G8, G20, Council of Europe and the OSCE. Russia maintains close relations with many of the other former Soviet republics through the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organisation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and others.

Russia maintains a dialogue with NATO through the NATO/Russia Council, including on Afghanistan, combating piracy, counter-proliferation and counter-terrorism. Meanwhile, negotiations continue between the EU and Russia on a successor to their Partnership and ...

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Each of the many nationalities of Russia has a separate history and complex origins. The historical origins of the Russian state, however, are chiefly those of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian peoples. The major pre-Soviet states of the East Slavs were, in chronological order, medieval Kievan Rus', Muscovy, and the Russian Empire. Three ...

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Area Handbook Series
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