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Introduction: The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan experienced several security incidents in 2010, including a mass prison-break from a...

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People: Contemporary Tajiks are the descendants of various ancient Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular the Soghdians and the Bactrians, and possibly other groups, with an admixture of Mongols and Turkic peoples. The largely Shi'a inhabitants of the Pamir mountains speak a number of mutually unintelligible eastern Iranian dialects quite distinct from the Tajik spoken in the rest of the ...

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International Relations: Tajikistan's relations with its neighbours

Russia remains Tajikistan’s key partner on both the economic and security fronts. Under the terms of agreements signed in October 2004. Russia wrote off around $250 million of bilateral debt in return for promises of substantial investment in the Tajik hydro-electric and aluminium industries. The latter, however, did not fully materialise with Tajiks charges that Russia is not living up to its economic support promises becoming more prevalent in recent times. Russia also maintains its largest permanent military base outside the Federation in Tajikistan. However, this base came ...

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Iranian and non-Iranian peoples. The ethnic contribution of various Turkic and Mongol peoples, who entered Central Asia at later times, has not been determined precisely. However, experts assume that some assimilation must have occurred in both directions.

The origin of the name Tajik has been embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian ...

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Area Handbook Series
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