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Introduction: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980),...

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Foreign Policy: Traditionally, Turkey's foreign relations have been structured around pro-Western alliances, its geo-strategic position and cultural and historical ties. The United States is a key foreign policy and security partner for Turkey. Turkey's links with NATO are similarly important. Turkey has seen a particular role for itself in promoting East-West links supporting an 'Alliance of Civilizations' initiative in the UN with Spain. Turkey maintains close relations with a number of European countries, including the UK and Germany, where a significant expatriate Turkish population resides.

Turkey's foreign policy has a strong focus ...

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History: Mustafa Kemal, celebrated by the Turkish State as a Turkish World War I hero and later known as "Ataturk" or "father of the Turks," led the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire and a 3-year war of independence. The empire, which at its peak controlled vast stretches of northern Africa, southeastern Europe, and western Asia, had failed to ...

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International Relations: EU

Turkey was accepted as an EU candidate country in 1999 and its Accession Partnership with the EU was adopted in 2005. The Accession Partnership sets out priorities for Turkey on meeting the ‘Copenhagen’ criteria and the assistance that the EU will provide. The Accession Partnership also calls on Turkey to take concrete steps for the normalisation of bilateral relations with all EU Member States as soon as possible. Turkey currently does not recognise the Republic of Cyprus. More information on the accession process can be found on the European Commission website. (http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/index_en.htm)

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There is abundant archaeological evidence of a thriving neolithic culture in Anatolia at least as early as the seventh millennium B.C. What may have been the world's first urban settlement (dated ca. 6500 B.C.) has been uncovered at Çatalhüyük in the Konya Ovasi (Konya Basin). Introduced early in the third millennium B.C., metallurgy made possible a flourishing "copper age" (ca. 2500-2000 ...

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