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Holy See (Vatican City)


Introduction: Popes in their secular role ruled portions of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century, when many of the Papal States were seized by the newly united Kingdom of Italy. In 1870, the pope's holdings were further circumscribed when Rome itself was annexed. Disputes between a series of "prisoner" popes and Italy were resolved in 1929 by three Lateran Treaties, which established the independent state of Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy. In 1984, a concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain of the earlier treaty provisions, including the primacy of Roman...

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Canonisation Of Blessed Mary Mackillop: On 17 October 2010 Mary MacKillop was canonised as Saint Mary of the Cross, creating Australia's first Saint. The ceremony took place in St Peter's Square in Vatican City and was presided over by Pope Benedict. Mr Rudd (as Minister for Foreign Affairs) was the senior Australian Government representative at the canonisation, and was accompanied by a bi-partisan delegation of Australian Parliamentarians comprising the Deputy Leader of the Opposition, the Hon Julie Bishop MP, Leader of the Nationals in the Senate, Senator Barnaby Joyce, and Labor Senator for NSW Senator Ursula Stephens.

It is estimated that some 10,000 other ...

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People and History: The population of Vatican City includes high-ranking Catholic Church officials, priests, women religious, and Swiss Guards. The Vatican's workforce includes about 3,000 lay (non-clerical) workers who live outside Vatican City State.

The Holy See's diplomatic history began in the fourth century, but the boundaries of the papacy's temporal power have shifted over the centuries. ...

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International Relations: The Holy See’s Relations with the UK

Formal diplomatic links between the England and the Holy See were first established in 1479 when John Shirwood was appointed by King Edward IV as the first resident Ambassador. Shirwood was also the first English Ambassador to serve abroad, making the Embassy to the Holy See the UK’s oldest Embassy.

Shirwood’s successors included William Celling, Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge and Silvester De Giglis, Bishop of Worcester, however formal diplomatic relations between England and the Holy See were interrupted in 1536. Links were restored in 1553, with Sir Edward ...

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