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Introduction: The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the...

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History: The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola ...

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International Relations: Zambia, under Kaunda, was a founder member of the 'front line states' which played a leading role in the liberation of neighbouring states in the 1970s and 1980s. Both the ANC of South Africa and SWAPO of Namibia had their headquarters in Lusaka for many years. This exposed Zambia to attacks from apartheid South Africa. Equally Zambia's support for ZAPU brought attacks from the white minority regime of Southern Rhodesia. Zambia's sympathy for UNITA caused friction with Angola. Zambia's economy suffered badly when the border with Southern Rhodesia was closed on UDI, depriving it of cheap trade routes to the south. China financed and built the ...

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(ZK) Zambian Kwacha (ZMK)
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