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GEOGRAPHY


Location:

 Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain

Geographic Coordinates:

 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Area:

 Total: 468 sq km
Land: 468 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 120.3 km
Border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:

 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 203)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)

Climate:

 Temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:

 Rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
Highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural Resources:

 Hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land Use:

 Arable land: 2.13%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 97.87% (2005)

Natural Hazards:

 Avalanches

Environment - Current Issues:

 Deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

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PEOPLE AND SOCIETY


Nationality:

 Noun: Andorran(s)
Adjective: Andorran

Ethnic Groups:

 Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Languages:

 Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Religions:

 Roman Catholic (predominant)

Population:

 84,825 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 15.6% (male 6,799/female 6,440)
15-64 years: 71.4% (male 31,545/female 29,037)
65 years and over: 13% (male 5,502/female 5,502) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 40.5 years
Male: 40.8 years
Female: 40.2 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.33% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 9.66 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 6.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization:

 Urban population: 88% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 25,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.066 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 82.43 years
Male: 80.35 years
Female: 84.64 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.35 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 7.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 3.716 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital Bed Density:

 2.62 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Education Expenditures:

 3.2% of GDP (2008)

Literacy:

 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 12 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 12 years (2008)

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GOVERNMENT


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
Conventional short form: Andorra
Local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Local short form: Andorra

Government Type:

 Parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the coprinces' representatives

Capital:

 Name: Andorra la Vella
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence:

 1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Seu d'Urgel)

National Holiday:

 Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:

 Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993

Legal System:

 Mixed legal system of civil and customary law with canon (religious) law influences

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Christian FREMONT (since September 2008) and Spanish Coprince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i Oste (since 30 July 2003)

Head of government: Executive Council President (or Cap de Govern) Antoni MARTI PETIT (since 12 May 2011)

Cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president

Elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council (Andorran Parliament) and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)

Election results: Antoni MARTI PETIT was elected Executive Council president; percent of General Council vote - NA; note - the leader of the party which wins a majority of seats in the General Council is usually elected president

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28-42 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)

Election results: percent of vote by party - DA 55%, PS 35%, Andorra for Change 7%, Andorran Green 3%; seats by party - DA 20, PS 6, Lauredian Union 2

Note: under usual circumstances, the next election would have been held in 2013, but because the General Council was unable to pass important laws such as the budget, it was dissolved and an election was held

Judicial Branch:

 Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia (coprinces appoint the members); Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional (coprinces appoint the members)

Note: all judges elected for a 6-year term renewable term

Political Parties and Leaders:

 There are four political parties at the national level: Andorra for Change or ApC [Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]; Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT], coalition including Liberal Party (PRA) and Reformist Coalition; Greens of Andorra [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ]; Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]; note - there are also several smaller parties at the Parish level (one is Lauredian Union)

International Organization Participation:

 CE, FAO, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Narcis CASAL de Fonsdeviela
Chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
Telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 The US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175

Flag Description:

 Three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection

Note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

National Anthem:

 Name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)
Lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS

Note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative

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ECONOMY


Economy - Overview:

 Tourism, commerce, and finance are the mainstays of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounting for more than three-quarters of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status for some products and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $3.3 billion (2009 est.)
$4.22 billion (2008 est.)
$3.66 billion (2007 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 3.8% (2009 est.)
2.6% (2008 est.)
2% (2007 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $46,700 (2009 est.)
$44,900 (2008 est.)
$42,500 (2007 est.)

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Labor Force:

 38,220 (2010)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 0.4%
Industry: 4.7%
Services: 94.9% (2010)

Unemployment Rate:

 2.9% (2009)
2.7% (2008)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 NA (2008)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:

 Revenues: $872 million
Expenditures: $868.4 million (2009)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.6% (2010)
0% (2009)

Agriculture - Products:

 Small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries:

 Tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 NA%

Electricity - Production:

 101 million kWh (2009)

Electricity - Consumption:

 598.7 million kWh (2009)

Electricity - Exports:

 9 million kWh (2009)

Electricity - Imports:

 497.7 million kWh

Note: most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower (2009)

Exports:

 $64 million (2009)
$89.5 million (2008)

Exports - Commodities:

 Tobacco products, furniture

Imports:

 $1.474 billion (2009)
$1.801 billion (2008)

Imports - Commodities:

 Consumer goods, food, electricity

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7179 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7306 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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COMMUNICATIONS


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 38,200 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 65,500 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: modern automatic telephone system

Domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges

International: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain

Broadcast Media:

 1 public television station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations operating; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital television broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international television channels available (2010)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 0 (easy access to radio and television broadcasts originating in France and Spain) (2009)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 1 (2009)

Internet Country Code:

 .ad

Internet Hosts:

 26,773 (2010)

Internet Users:

 67,100 (2009)

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TRANSPORTATION


Roadways:

 Total: 320 km (2008)

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MILITARY


Military Branches:

 No regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra (2010)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 22,390 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 17,977
Females age 16-49: 17,069 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 397
Female: 347 (2010 est.)

Military - Note:

 Defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

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Last Updated: December 2011

Andorra Main Page World Factbook Main Page






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