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 Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic Coordinates:

 17 03 N, 61 48 W


 Total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
Land: 442.6 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries:

 0 km


 153 km (Rank: 152)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


 Tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation


 Mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural Resources:

 NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land Use:

 Arable land: 18.18%
Permanent crops: 4.55%
Other: 77.27% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 1.3 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 0.1 cu km (2000)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.005 cu km/yr (60%/20%/20%)
Per capita: 63 cu m/yr (1990)

Natural Hazards:

 Hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - Current Issues:

 Water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor

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 Noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
Adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic Groups:

 Black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)


 English (official), local dialects


 Protestant 76.4% (Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%), Roman Catholic 10.4%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)


 87,884 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 25.8% (male 11,530/female 11,174)
15-64 years: 67.4% (male 27,599/female 31,592)
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 2,592/female 3,397) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 30.3 years
Male: 28.7 years
Female: 31.7 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 1.289% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 16.31 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 5.73 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 27,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 16.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 12.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 75.48 years
Male: 73.47 years
Female: 77.59 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 2.05 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 5.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.17 physicians/1,000 population (1999)

Hospital Bed Density:

 2.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 95% of population
Rural: 89% of population
Total: 91% of population
Urban: 5% of population
Rural: 11% of population
Total: 9% of population (2000)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 98% of population
Rural: 94% of population
Total: 95% of population
Urban: 2% of population
Rural: 6% of population
Total: 5% of population (2000)

Education Expenditures:

 2.7% of GDP (2009)


 Definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
Total population: 85.8%
Male: NA
Female: NA (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 14 years (2009)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 19.9%
Male: 18.4%
Female: 21.6% (2001)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government Type:

 Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm


 Name: Saint John's
Geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip


 1 November 1981 (from the UK)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)



Legal System:

 Common law based on the English model

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)

Head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

Elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 March 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

Election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 50.9%, ALP 47.2%, BPM 1.1%; seats by party - UPP 9, ALP 7, BPM 1

Judicial Branch:

 Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court consisting of a High Court of Justice and a Court of Appeal (based in Saint Lucia; two judges of the Supreme Court are residents of the islands and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); Magistrates' Courts; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
Chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
Telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
Consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 The US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag Description:

 Red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand

National Anthem:

 Name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
Lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS

Note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

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Economy - Overview:

 Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program, and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from 120% to about 90% in 2008. However, the global financial crisis that began in 2008, has led to a significant increase in the national debt, which topped 130% at the end of 2010. The Antiguan economy experienced solid growth from 2003 to 2007, reaching over 12% in 2006 driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing associated with the Cricket World Cup, but growth dropped off in 2008 with the end of the boom. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis, suffering from the collapse of its largest financial institution and a steep decline in tourism. This decline continued in 2010 as the country struggled with a yawning budget deficit.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $1.425 billion (2010 est.)
$1.486 billion (2009 est.)
$1.631 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $1.105 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 -4.1% (2010 est.)
-8.9% (2009 est.)
1.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $16,400 (2010 est.)
$17,400 (2009 est.)
$19,300 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 3.9%
Industry: 33.2%
Services: 62.9% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 30,000 (1991)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 7%
Industry: 11%
Services: 82% (1983)

Unemployment Rate:

 11% (2001 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 79% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $229.5 million
Expenditures: $293.4 million (2009 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 20.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -5.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 2.9% (2010 est.)
-0.1% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 11.025% (31 December 2010 est.)
10.05% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $296.4 million (31 December 2008)
$294.8 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $939.9 million (31 December 2008)
$902 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $208.1 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$233.5 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.299 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.194 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $1.14 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.19 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock


 Tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial Production Growth Rate:


Electricity - Production:

 115 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 100%
Hydro: 0%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 107 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 5,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 240 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 4,548 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$326.5 million (2010 est.)
-$261.6 million (2009 est.)


 $69.1 million (2010 est.)
$71.53 million (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals


 $633.7 million (2010 est.)
$589.4 million (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Debt - External:

 $359.8 million (June 2006)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert East Caribbean Dollar to Any Currency

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2010)
2.7 (2009)
2.7 (2005)
2.7 (2004)
2.7 (2003)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 41,700 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 163,900 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: good automatic telephone system

Domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 190 per 100 persons

International: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 State-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; 1 radio station operated by ABS; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 2 (1997)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 9,795 (2010)

Internet Users:

 65,000 (2009)

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 3 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2010)


 Total: 1,165 km
Paved: 384 km
Unpaved: 781 km (2002)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 1,219
By type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 53, cargo 703, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 412, liquefied gas 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 16, vehicle carrier 2
Foreign-owned: 1,186 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 20, Germany 1050, Greece 5, Iceland 9, Isle of Man 2, Latvia 16, Lithuania 4, Mexico 2, Netherlands 18, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, US 6)

Note: this country allows large numbers of ships owned by foreign entities to be registered in its national shipping registry and to fly its flag; these ships operate under the laws of the flag state (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Saint John's

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Military Branches:

 Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 21,141
Females age 16-49: 24,056 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 17,676
Females age 16-49: 19,960 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 806
Female: 799 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 0.5% of GDP (2009)

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Illicit Drugs:

 Considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

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Last Updated: December 2011

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