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Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again by 1996. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS held legislative elections in September 2008 and, despite promising to hold presidential elections in 2009, has since pushed through a new constitution that calls for... See More



 Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic Coordinates:

 12 30 S, 18 30 E


 Total: 1,246,700 sq km
Land: 1,246,700 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 5,198 km
Border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km


 1,600 km (Rank: 65)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


 Semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)


 Narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural Resources:

 Petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land Use:

 Arable land: 2.65%
Permanent crops: 0.23%
Other: 97.12% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 800 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 184 cu km (1987)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)
Per capita: 22 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - Current Issues:

 Overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 The province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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 Noun: Angolan(s)
Adjective: Angolan

Ethnic Groups:

 Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%


 Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages


 Indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)


 13,338,541 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 43.2% (male 2,910,981/female 2,856,527)
15-64 years: 54.1% (male 3,663,400/female 3,549,896)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 157,778/female 199,959) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 18.1 years
Male: 18.1 years
Female: 18.1 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 2.034% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 42.91 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 23.4 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 59% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 LUANDA (capital) 4.511 million; Huambo 979,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 610 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 175.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 187.86 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 163.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 38.76 years
Male: 37.74 years
Female: 39.83 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 5.97 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 4.6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital Bed Density:

 0.8 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 60% of population
Rural: 38% of population
Total: 50% of population
Urban: 40% of population
Rural: 62% of population
Total: 50% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 86% of population
Rural: 18% of population
Total: 57% of population
Urban: 14% of population
Rural: 82% of population
Total: 43% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 2% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 200,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 11,000 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 27.5% (2001)

Education Expenditures:

 2.6% of GDP (2006)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 67.4%
Male: 82.9%
Female: 54.2% (2001 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 9 years (2006)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Angola
Conventional short form: Angola
Local long form: Republica de Angola
Local short form: Angola
Former: People's Republic of Angola

Government Type:

 Republic; multiparty presidential regime


 Name: Luanda
Geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 14 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire


 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 11 November (1975)


 Adopted by National Assembly 5 February 2010

Legal System:

 Civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Fernando da Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS (since 2 February 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Fernando da Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS (since 2 February 2010)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections: president indirectly elected by National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 2010 constitution; President DOS SANTOS was selected by the party to take over after the death of former President Augustino NETO (1979) under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections on 29-30 September 1992 (next were to be held in September 2009 but were postponed)

Election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was never held leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 5-6 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 81.6%, UNITA 10.4%, PRS 3.2%, ND 1.2%, FNLA 1.1%, other 2.5%; seats by party - MPLA 191, UNITA 16, PRS 8, FNLA 3, ND 2

Judicial Branch:

 Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional; Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo; Court of Auditions or Tribunal de Contas; Supreme Military Court or Supremo Tribunal Militar; judges for all courts appointed by the president

Political Parties and Leaders:

 National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Ngola KABANGU]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party); New Democracy Electoral Union or ND [Quintino de MOREIRA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975); Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]

Note: nine other parties participated in the legislative election in September 2008 but won no seats

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]

Note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto do Carmo BENTO RIBEIRO
Chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
Consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher J. MCMULLEN
Embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
Mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
Telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232

Flag Description:

 Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants

National Symbols:

 Sable antelope

National Anthem:

 Name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
Lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

Note: adopted 1975

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Economy - Overview:

 Angola's high growth rate in recent years was driven by high international prices for its oil. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and in late 2007 was assigned a production quota of 1.9 million barrels a day (bbl/day), somewhat less than the 2-2.5 million bbl/day Angola's government had wanted. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Diamond exports contribute an additional 5%. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 15% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, even though peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Since 2005, the government has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. The global recession temporarily stalled economic growth. Lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession led to a contraction in GDP in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Although consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to under 14% in 2010, Luanda has been unable to reduce inflation below 10%. The Angolan kwanza depreciated again in mid 2010, which, along with higher oil prices, should boost economic growth in all sectors. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, also is a major challenge.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $107.3 billion (2010 est.)
$105.6 billion (2009 est.)
$103.1 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $85.31 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 1.6% (2010 est.)
2.4% (2009 est.)
13.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $8,200 (2010 est.)
$8,300 (2009 est.)
$8,200 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 9.6%
Industry: 65.8%
Services: 24.6% (2008 est.)

Labor Force:

 8.014 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 85%
Industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 40.5% (2006 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 0.6%
Highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 12,615 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 13.5% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $35.54 billion
Expenditures: $29.5 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 41.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 7.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 21.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 14.5% (2010 est.)
13.9% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 25% (31 December 2010 est.)
30% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 22.68% (31 December 2010 est.)
15.68% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $8.446 billion (31 December 2008)
$4.153 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $10.41 billion (31 December 2008)
$7.216 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $18.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$18.29 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $28.14 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$25.77 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $18.95 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$19.58 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish


 Petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 3.944 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 36.4%
Hydro: 63.6%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 3.365 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 1.988 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 74,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 1.851 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 38,280 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 9.5 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 690 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 690 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 309.8 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $7.202 billion (2010 est.)
-$7.572 billion (2009 est.)


 $50.59 billion (2010 est.)
$40.83 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - Partners:

 China 42.8%, US 23%, India 9.5%, France 4% (2010)


 $18.34 billion (2010 est.)
$22.66 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - Partners:

 Portugal 17.4%, China 14%, US 9%, Brazil 6.6%, South Africa 6%, France 5.8%, India 5.3% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $19.66 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$13.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $18.11 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$16.72 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $5.096 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.933 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $88.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$78.45 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert to Any Currency

Kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
92.08 (2010)
79.33 (2009)
75.023 (2008)
76.6 (2007)
80.4 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 303,200 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 8.909 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001

Domestic: only about two fixed-lines per 100 persons; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 70 telephones per 100 persons in 2010

International: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 State controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 6 (2000)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 3,717 (2010)

Internet Users:

 606,700 (2009)

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 193 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 31
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 162
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 78
Under 914 m: 47 (2010)


 Gas 2 km; oil 87 km (2010)


 Total: 2,764 km
Narrow gauge: 2,641 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 51,429 km
Paved: 5,349 km
Unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)


 1,300 km (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 7
By type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1
Foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
Registered in other countries: 15 (Bahamas 5, Liberia 1, Malta 7, former Netherlands Antilles 2) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

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Military Branches:

 Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 20-45 years of age for compulsory and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; Angolan citizenship required; the Marinha de Guerra Angola (Navy, MgA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 3,062,438
Females age 16-49: 2,964,262 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,546,781
Females age 16-49: 1,492,308 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 155,476
Female: 152,054 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 3.6% of GDP (2009)

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Disputes - International:

 DROC accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Illicit Drugs:

 Used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa

Trafficking in Persons:

 Current situation: Angola is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; internally, trafficking victims reportedly are forced to labor in agriculture, construction, domestic service, and diamond mines; Angolan women and children are subjected to domestic servitude in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Namibia, and some European nations, primarily Portugal; Vietnamese, Chinese, and Brazilian women in prostitution in Angola may also be victims of sex trafficking; reports indicate that Chinese, South East Asian, Namibian, and possibly Congolese migrants are subjected to forced labor in Angola's construction industry

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Government of Angola does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making efforts to do so; the government did not demonstrate an increase in its modest anti-trafficking efforts of the previous year; no efforts were made to improve its minimal protection services provided to victims or to raise awareness of trafficking (2011)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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