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 North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)

Geographic Coordinates:

 32 20 N, 64 45 W


 Total: 54 sq km
Land: 54 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 About one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries:

 0 km


 103 km (Rank: 164)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm


 Subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter


 Low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural Resources:

 Limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land Use:

 Arable land: 20%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 NA (2008)

Natural Hazards:

 Hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Sustainable development

Geography - Note:

 Consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995

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 Noun: Bermudian(s)
Adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic Groups:

 Black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2000 census)


 English (official), Portuguese


 Protestant 52% (Anglican 23%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, other Protestant 18%), Roman Catholic 15%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14% (2000 census)


 68,679 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 18% (male 6,212/female 6,129)
15-64 years: 67% (male 22,701/female 23,293)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 4,304/female 6,040) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 42 years
Male: 40.4 years
Female: 43.5 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.594% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 11.42 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 7.57 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 HAMILTON (capital) 12,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.015 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 2.47 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 2.57 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 80.71 years
Male: 77.49 years
Female: 83.99 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.97 children born/woman (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.3% (2005)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 163 (2005)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 392 (2005)

Education Expenditures:

 2.6% of GDP (2009)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 98%
Female: 99% (2005 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 12 years (2006)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Bermuda
Former: Somers Islands

Government Type:

 Parliamentary; self-governing territory


 Name: Hamilton
Geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative Divisions:

 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick

Dependency Status:

 Overseas territory of the UK


 None (overseas territory of the UK)

National Holiday:

 Bermuda Day, 24 May


 8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003

Legal System:

 English common law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 12 December 2007)

Head of government: Premier Paula COX (since 29 October 2010); Deputy Premier Derrick BURGESS

Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; members appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition to serve a five-year term) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve up to five-year terms)

Elections: last general election held on 18 December 2007 (next to be held not later than 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 52.5%, UBP 47.3%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court (Chief Justice and other justices appointed by the governor; remain in office until they reach 65 years of age); Court of Appeal (President of the Court of Appeal and other justices appointed by the governor for a specific period laid out in their respective instruments of appointment); Magistrate Courts

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Kim SWAN]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International Organization Participation:

 Caricom (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UPU, WCO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 None (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Consul General Grace W. SHELTON
Consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
Mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
Telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, 296-9233

Flag Description:

 Red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to settling of Bermuda

Note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

National Symbols:

 Red lion

National Anthem:

 Name: "Hail to Bermuda"
Lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

Note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)


 (overseas territory of the UK)

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Economy - Overview:

 Bermuda enjoys the third highest per capita income in the world, more than 50% higher than that of the US; the average cost of a house by the mid-2000s exceeded $1,000,000. Its economy is primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies relocated to the island following the 11 September 2001 attacks and again after Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is largely focused on construction and agriculture is limited, with only 20% of the land being arable.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $4.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 4.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $69,900 (2004 est.)

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 0.7%
Industry: 8.4%
Services: 90.8% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 38,360 (2004)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture and fishing: 3%
Laborers: 17%
Clerical: 19%
Professional and technical: 21%
Administrative and managerial: 15%
Sales: 7%
Services: 19% (2004 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 2.1% (2004 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 19% (2000)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 24.3% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $738 million
Expenditures: $665 million (FY04/05)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 2.4% (2010 est.)
1.8% (2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $1.535 billion (31 December 2010)
$1.36 billion (31 December 2009)
$1.912 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey


 International business, tourism, light manufacturing

Industrial Production Growth Rate:


Electricity - Production:

 693.7 million kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 100%
Hydro: 0%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 636.4 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 5,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 4,804 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $660 million (2010 est.)
$548 million (2009 est.)


 $27 million (2010 est.)
$29 million (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - Partners:

 India 88.4%, France 14.6%, Germany 13.2%, Norway 7.2%, Bangladesh 6.7%, Indonesia 6.5%, US 4.4%, Nepal 1.8% (2010)


 $966 million (2010 est.)
$1.065 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - Partners:

 India 63.1%, Germany 36.2%, South Korea 22.2%, US 15.9%, India 9.1%, China 8.4%, India 4.5% (2010)

Debt - External:

 $160 million (FY99/00)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Bermuda Dollar to Any Currency

Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 57,800 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 88,200 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines

Domestic: the system has a high fixed-line teledensity coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 125 per 100 persons

International: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1)submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 3 television stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 10 radio stations operating (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 5, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2009)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 3 (2005)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 19,855 (2010)

Internet Users:

 54,000 (2009)

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 1 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2010)


 Total: 447 km
Paved: 447 km

Note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2007)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 139
By type: bulk carrier 22, chemical tanker 3, container 15, liquefied gas 38, passenger 26, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 20, refrigerated cargo 9
Foreign-owned: 114 (China 13, France 1, Germany 15, Greece 2, Hong Kong 5, Ireland 2, Israel 3, Japan 2, Monaco 2, Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 17, UK 11, US 25)
Registered in other countries: 180 (Bahamas 12, Cyprus 1, Greece 3, Hong Kong 12, Isle of Man 7, Liberia 4, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 34, Norway 5, Panama 15, Philippines 43, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 21, UK 9, US 5) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George

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Military Branches:

 Bermuda Regiment (2009)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-30 years of age for voluntary or compulsory enlistment in the Bermuda Regiment; males must register at age 18; term of service is 38 months (2009)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 15,081 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 12,323
Females age 16-49: 12,174 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 433
Female: 410 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 0.11% of GDP (2005 est.)

Military - Note:

 Defense is the responsibility of the UK

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Last Updated: December 2011

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