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 Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic Coordinates:

 4 30 N, 114 40 E


 Total: 5,765 sq km
Land: 5,265 sq km
Water: 500 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Delaware

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 381 km
Border countries: Malaysia 381 km


 161 km (Rank: 148)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line


 Tropical; hot, humid, rainy


 Flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural Resources:

 Petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land Use:

 Arable land: 2.08%
Permanent crops: 0.87%
Other: 97.05% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 10 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 8.5 cu km (1999)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.09
Per capita: 243 cu m/yr (1994)

Natural Hazards:

 Typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - Current Issues:

 Seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia

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 Noun: Bruneian(s)
Adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic Groups:

 Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)


 Malay (official), English, Chinese


 Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%


 401,890 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 25.5% (male 52,944/female 49,729)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 141,121/female 143,977)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 6,881/female 7,238) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 28.4 years
Male: 28.3 years
Female: 28.6 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 1.712% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 17.87 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 3.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 76% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 22,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.047 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 21 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 11.51 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 13.74 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 9.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 76.17 years
Male: 73.91 years
Female: 78.53 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.86 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 1.417 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 2.71 beds/1,000 population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 Less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 Fewer than 200 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 200 (2003 est.)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 92.7%
Male: 95.2%
Female: 90.2% (2001 census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 14 years (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
Conventional short form: Brunei
Local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
Local short form: Brunei

Government Type:

 Constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)


 Name: Bandar Seri Begawan
Geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
Time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong


 1 January 1984 (from the UK)

National Holiday:

 National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection


 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal System:

 Mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age for village elections; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

Cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

Elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Legislative Branch:

 The Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in March

Elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)

Note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announced

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Sharia courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]

Note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Yusoff Abd HAMID
Chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. SHIELDS III
Embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
Mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
Telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604

Flag Description:

 Yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"

National Anthem:

 Name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
Lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap

Note: adopted 1951

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Economy - Overview:

 Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for just over half of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. A new monetary authority was established in January 2011 with responsibilities that include monetary policy, monitoring of financial institutions, and currency trading activities.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $20.38 billion (2010 est.)
$19.58 billion (2009 est.)
$19.93 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $13.02 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 4.1% (2010 est.)
-1.8% (2009 est.)
-1.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $51,600 (2010 est.)
$50,400 (2009 est.)
$52,300 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 0.9%
Industry: 72.1%
Services: 27% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 188,800 (2008)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 4.2%
Industry: 62.8%
Services: 33% (2008 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 3.7% (2008)
3.4% (2007)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 16.1% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $4.689 billion
Expenditures: $4.869 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 36% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -1.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 0.4% (2010 est.)
1.1% (2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 5.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $3.374 billion (30 March 2009)
$3.046 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $8.151 billion (30 March 2009)
$4.551 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $2.954 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.841 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $9.731 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$8.548 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $3.019 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.209 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs


 Petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 -5.4% (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 3.218 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 100%
Hydro: 0%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 3.054 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 159,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 17,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 153,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 138 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 11.5 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 2.69 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 8.81 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $3.977 billion (2009 est.)
$3.977 billion (2008 est.)


 $10.67 billion (2008)
$8.25 billion (2007)

Exports - Commodities:

 Crude oil, natural gas, garments

Exports - Partners:

 Japan 45.6%, South Korea 12%, Australia 11.9%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.1%, India 5.8%, NZ 5.1% (2010)


 $2.61 billion (2008 est.)
$2.055 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports - Partners:

 Singapore 33.5%, Malaysia 19.9%, China 13%, UK 6.9%, Japan 5.3%, Thailand 4.6%, US 4.4% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $1.563 billion (2010)
$1.357 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $0 (2005)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Brunei Dollar to Any Currency

Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.36 (2010)
1.45 (2009)
2 (2006)
2 (2005)
2 (2004)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 79,900 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 435,100 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US

Domestic: every service available

International: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network, scheduled for completion by late 2008, will provide new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 State-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 4 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks broadcasting on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 1, FM 2 (transmitting on 18 different frequencies), shortwave 0 (British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) station transmits two FM signals with English and Nepali service) (2006)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 4 (includes 2 UHF stations broadcasting a subscription service) (2006)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 50,997 (2010)

Internet Users:

 314,900 (2009)

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 2 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 2
Over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)


 3 (2010)


 Condensate 33 km; gas 37 km; oil 18 km (2010)


 Total: 2,971 km
Paved: 2,411 km
Unpaved: 560 km (2008)


 209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2011)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 9
By type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8 (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Lumut, Muara, Seria

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Military Branches:

 Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age (est.) for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve (2007)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 112,688
Females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 95,141
Females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 3,572
Female: 3,465 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 4.5% of GDP (2006)

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Disputes - International:

 Per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef

Illicit Drugs:

 Drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

Trafficking in Persons:

 Current situation: Brunei is a destination, and to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for men and women who are subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; men and women from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, China, and Thailand migrate to Brunei for domestic work or other low-skilled employment, but sometimes face conditions of involuntary servitude after arrival

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the government has yet to prosecute a human-trafficking case using its 2004 anti-trafficking law, has not shown evidence of increased efforts to address human trafficking over the previous year, and has not identified or assisted any trafficking victims (2011)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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