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 Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic Coordinates:

 60 00 N, 95 00 W


 Total: 9,984,670 sq km
Land: 9,093,507 sq km
Water: 891,163 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly larger than the US

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 8,893 km
Border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Note: Canada is the World's largest country that borders only one country


 202,080 km (Rank: 1)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


 Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north


 Mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural Resources:

 Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land Use:

 Arable land: 4.57%
Permanent crops: 0.65%
Other: 94.78% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 8,550 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 3,300 cu km (1985)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 44.72 cu km/yr (20%/69%/12%)
Per capita: 1,386 cu m/yr (1996)

Natural Hazards:

 Continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

Volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment - Current Issues:

 Air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - Note:

 Second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border

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 Noun: Canadian(s)
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic Groups:

 British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%


 English (official) 58.8%, French (official) 21.6%, other 19.6% (2006 Census)


 Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)


 34,030,589 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 15.7% (male 2,736,737/female 2,602,342)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 11,776,611/female 11,517,972)
65 years and over: 15.9% (male 2,372,356/female 3,024,571) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 41 years
Male: 39.8 years
Female: 42.1 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.794% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 10.28 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 7.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 5.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 81% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 Toronto 5.377 million; Montreal 3.75 million; Vancouver 2.197 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.17 million; Calgary 1.16 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.056 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 81.38 years
Male: 78.81 years
Female: 84.1 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.58 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 10.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 1.9132 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital Bed Density:

 3.4 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 99% of population
Total: 100% of population
Urban: 0% of population
Rural: 1% of population
Total: 0% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 99% of population
Total: 100% of population
Urban: 0% of population
Rural: 1% of population
Total: 0% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.3% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 68,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 23.1% (2004)

Education Expenditures:

 4.9% of GDP (2007)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 17 years
Male: 17 years
Female: 17 years (2004)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 15.3%
Male: 18.1%
Female: 12.4% (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Canada

Government Type:

 A parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy


 Name: Ottawa
Geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Note: Canada is divided into six time zones

Administrative Divisions:

 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*


 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National Holiday:

 Canada Day, 1 July (1867)


 Made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments

Legal System:

 Common law system except in Quebec where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General David JOHNSTON (since 1 October 2010)

Head of government: Prime Minister Stephen Joseph HARPER (since 6 February 2006)

Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and serve until 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a maximum of four-year terms)

Elections: House of Commons - last held on 2 May 2011 (next to be held no later than 19 October 2015)

Election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 39.6%, New Democratic Party 30.6%, Liberal Party 18.9%, Bloc Quebecois 6%, Greens 3.9%; seats by party - Conservative Party 166, New Democratic Party 103, Liberal Party 34, Bloc Quebecois 4, Greens 1

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Tax Court of Canada; Provincial/Territorial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queen's Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Bloc Quebecois [Louis PLAMONDON]; Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Robert RAE (interim)]; New Democratic Party [Nycole Turmel (interim)]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions

International Organization Participation:

 ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Gary DOER
Chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
Telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701
Consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley,, Seattle
Consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Raleigh, San Diego, San Jose (California), Tucson

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador David C. JACOBSON
Embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
Mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1
Telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
Consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg

Flag Description:

 Two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol; the official colors of Canada are red and white

National Symbols:

 Maple leaf

National Anthem:

 Name: "O Canada"
Lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

Note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

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Economy - Overview:

 As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. During 2010, Canada's economy grew only 3%, due to decreased global demand and a highly valued Canadian dollar.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $1.33 trillion (2010 est.)
$1.291 trillion (2009 est.)
$1.323 trillion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $1.574 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 3.1% (2010 est.)
-2.5% (2009 est.)
0.5% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $39,400 (2010 est.)
$38,500 (2009 est.)
$39,800 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 2.2%
Industry: 26.3%
Services: 71.5% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 18.53 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 2%
Manufacturing: 13%
Construction: 6%
Services: 76%
Other: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 8% (2010 est.)
8.3% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 22.1% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $601 billion
Expenditures: $689.8 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 38.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -5.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 84% of GDP (2010 est.)
83.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.8% (2010 est.)
0.3% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 1% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 2.604% (31 December 2010 est.)
2.396% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $356.2 billion (31 December 2008)
$391.6 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $1.299 trillion (31 December 2008)
$1.381 trillion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $585.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$513.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.356 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.251 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $2.731 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.488 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $2.16 trillion (31 December 2010)
$1.681 trillion (31 December 2009)
$1.002 trillion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish


 Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 5.8% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 604.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 28%
Hydro: 57.9%
Nuclear: 12.9%
Other: 1.3% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 549.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 51.11 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 33.62 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 3.483 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 2.209 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 1.929 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 1.088 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 175.2 billion bbl

Note: includes oil sands (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 152.3 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 82.48 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 92.4 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 22.53 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 1.754 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$48.5 billion (2010 est.)
-$39.58 billion (2009 est.)


 $393 billion (2010 est.)
$323.1 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - Partners:

 US 74.9%, UK 4.1% (2010)


 $401.7 billion (2010 est.)
$327.3 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - Partners:

 US 50.4%, China 11%, Mexico 5.5% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $57.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$54.36 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $1.181 trillion (30 June 2011)
$1.009 trillion (30 June 2010)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $616.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$593.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $561.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$523.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Canadian Dollar to Any Currency

Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
1.0346 (2010)
1.1431 (2009)
1.0364 (2008)
1.0724 (2007)
1.1334 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 17.021 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 24.037 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology

Domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

International: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2007)

Broadcast Media:

 2 public television broadcasting networks each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 2,000 licensed radio stations in Canada (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 148 (2007)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 7.77 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 26.96 million (2009)

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 1,404 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 514
Over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 148
914 to 1,523 m: 249
Under 914 m: 79 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 890
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 377
Under 914 m: 440 (2010)


 12 (2010)


 Gas 835 km; liquid petroleum gas 75,000 km (2010)


 Total: 46,552 km
Standard gauge: 46,552 km 1.435-m gauge (2009)


 Total: 1,042,300 km
Paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 626,700 km (2009)


 636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2008)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 184
By type: bulk carrier 66, cargo 12, carrier 1, chemical tanker 14, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 64, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 6
Foreign-owned: 15 (France 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 4, US 9)
Registered in other countries: 223 (Australia 7, Bahamas 102, Barbados 13, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 70, Liberia 4, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Norway 1, Panama 5, Spain 5, US 1, Vanuatu 5) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Fraser River Port, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, Port-Cartier, Quebec City, Saint John (New Brunswick), Sept-Isles, Vancouver
Oil terminals: Lower Lakes terminal

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Military Branches:

 Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canada Command (homeland security) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for reserve and military college applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2008)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 8,031,266
Females age 16-49: 7,755,550 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 6,633,472
Females age 16-49: 6,389,669 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 218,069
Female: 206,195 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

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Disputes - International:

 Managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Illicit Drugs:

 Illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector

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Last Updated: December 2011

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