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The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell... See More



 Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

Geographic Coordinates:

 27 00 N, 30 00 E


 Total: 1,001,450 sq km
Land: 995,450 sq km
Water: 6,000 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 2,665 km
Border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km


 2,450 km (Rank: 50)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


 Desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters


 Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
Highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural Resources:

 Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

Land Use:

 Arable land: 2.92%
Permanent crops: 0.5%
Other: 96.58% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 35,300 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 86.8 cu km (1997)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)
Per capita: 923 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

Environment - Current Issues:

 Agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories

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 Noun: Egyptian(s)
Adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic Groups:

 Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)


 Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes


 Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%


 82,079,636 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 32.7% (male 13,725,282/female 13,112,157)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 26,187,921/female 25,353,947)
65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,669,313/female 2,031,016) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 24.3 years
Male: 24 years
Female: 24.6 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 1.96% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 24.63 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 4.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 43.4% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 CAIRO (capital) 10.902 million; Alexandria 4.387 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 82 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 25.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 72.66 years
Male: 70.07 years
Female: 75.38 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 2.97 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 6.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital Bed Density:

 1.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 98% of population
Total: 99% of population
Urban: 0% of population
Rural: 4% of population
Total: 1% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 97% of population
Rural: 92% of population
Total: 94% of population
Urban: 3% of population
Rural: 8% of population
Total: 6% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 Less than 0.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 11,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: Rift Valley fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis

Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds(2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 6.8% (2008)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 30.3% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 3.8% of GDP (2008)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 71.4%
Male: 83%
Female: 59.4% (2005 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2004)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 24.8%
Male: 17.2%
Female: 47.9% (2007)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
Conventional short form: Egypt
Local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Local short form: Misr
Former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government Type:



 Name: Cairo
Geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj


 28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically

National Holiday:

 Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)


 11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007; note - constitution suspended by the military caretaker government 13 February 2011 and a new provisional constitution adopted 30 March 2011

Legal System:

 Mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil law and Islamic religious law; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions)

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive Branch:

 Note: following the resignation of President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK in February 2011, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, headed by Defense Minister Muhammad Hussein TANTAWI, assumed control of the government

Chief of state: president (vacant); vice president (vacant)

Head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmad El-GANZOURI (since 25 November 2011)

Cabinet: Prime Minister GANZOURI asked to form a new government on 27 November 2011

Elections: NA

Election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral system consists of the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (Shura Council) that traditionally functions mostly in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 members elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members) and the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (518 seats; 508 members elected by popular vote, 64 seats reserved for women, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

Elections: Advisory Council - last held in June 2010 (next to be held in 2012); People's Assembly - last held in November-December 2010 in one round of voting and one run-off election (next to be held in 2015); note - on 13 February 2011 the ruling military council dissolved the parliament; new parliamentary elections to be held in late 2011 - early 2012

Election results: Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 80, Al-Geel 1, Nasserist 1, NWP 1, Tagammu 1, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 3; People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 419, NWP 6, Tagammu 5, Democratic Peace Party 1, Social Justice Party 1, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 71, seats undecided 4, seats appointed by president 10

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Constitutional Court

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Al-Geel; Democratic Peace Party; Nasserist Party [Ahmed HASSAN]; National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Sayed EL-BEDAWY]; Social Justice Party [Mohamed Abdel Al HASAN]; Tomorrow Party [Ayman NOUR]

Note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal)

Note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Egypt's most potentially significant political opposition; President MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence (its members compete as independents in elections but do not currently hold any seats in the legislature); civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned; Internet social networking groups and bloggers

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Sameh Hassan SHOUKRY
Chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Ann W. PATTERSON
Embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
Mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
Telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200

Flag Description:

 Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

Note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band

National Symbols:

 Golden eagle

National Anthem:

 Name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
Lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH

Note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem

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Economy - Overview:

 Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. The global financial crisis slowed the reform efforts. The budget deficit climbed to over 8% of GDP and Egypt's GDP growth slowed to 4.6% in 2009, predominately due to reduced growth in export-oriented sectors, including manufacturing and tourism, and Suez Canal revenues. In 2010, the government spent more on infrastructure and public projects, and exports drove GDP growth to more than 5%, but GDP growth in 2011 is unlikely to bounce back to pre-global financial recession levels, when it stood at 7%. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remain poor.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $497.8 billion (2010 est.)
$473.4 billion (2009 est.)
$452.3 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $218.5 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 5.1% (2010 est.)
4.7% (2009 est.)
7.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $6,200 (2010 est.)
$6,000 (2009 est.)
$5,900 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 37.5%
Services: 48.3% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 26.2 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 32%
Industry: 17%
Services: 51% (2001 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 9% (2010 est.)
9.4% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 20% (2005 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.9%
Highest 10%: 27.6% (2005)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 34.4 (2001)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 60,000 - 80,000 (Iraq); 70,198 (Palestinian Territories); 12,157 (Sudan) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 18.1% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $47.66 billion
Expenditures: $65.05 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 21.8% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -8% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 81.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
83.5% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 11.1% (2010 est.)
11.8% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 8.68% (31 December 2010 est.)
8.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 11.008% (31 December 2010 est.)
11.975% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $31.72 billion (31 December 2008)
$27.6 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $112.2 billion (31 December 2008)
$102.6 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $38.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$35.91 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $168.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$158.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $141.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$136.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $82.49 billion (31 December 2010)
$89.95 billion (31 December 2009)
$85.89 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats


 Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 4.4% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 123.9 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 81%
Hydro: 19%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 109.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 1.022 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 896 million kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - Production:

 662,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 740,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 163,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 177,200 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 62.69 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 44.37 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 18.32 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$4.435 billion (2010 est.)
-$3.195 billion (2009 est.)


 $25.02 billion (2010 est.)
$23.09 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Exports - Partners:

 US 7.6%, Italy 7.3%, India 6.1%, Spain 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, France 4.7%, Libya 4% (2010)


 $51.54 billion (2010 est.)
$45.56 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - Partners:

 US 11.8%, China 10.4%, Germany 6.5%, Italy 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $35.79 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$33.93 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $34.91 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
$35.37 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $5.448 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$4.272 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $73.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$66.71 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Egyptian Pound to Any Currency

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
5.6124 (2010)
5.545 (2009)
5.4 (2008)
5.67 (2007)
5.725 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 9.618 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 70.661 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

Domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2010 there were three mobile-cellular networks with a total of more than 55 million subscribers

International: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 Mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately-owned radio stations operational (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 22, shortwave 1 (2010)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 64 (2010)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 187,197 (2010)

Internet Users:

 20.136 million (2009)

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 86 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 73
Over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 5 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 4 (2010)


 6 (2010)


 Condensate 320 km; condensate/gas 13 km; gas 6,628 km; liquid petroleum gas 956 km; oil 4,332 km; oil/gas/water 3 km; refined products 895 km; water 13 km (2010)


 Total: 5,083 km
Standard gauge: 5,083 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2010)


 Total: 65,050 km
Paved: 47,500 km
Unpaved: 17,550 km (2009)


 3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 66
By type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 24, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
Foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
Registered in other countries: 52 (Cambodia 12, Cook Islands 1, Georgia 11, Honduras 2, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 2, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Sidi Kurayr, Suez

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Military Branches:

 Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 21,012,199
Females age 16-49: 20,145,021 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 18,060,543
Females age 16-49: 17,244,838 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 783,405
Female: 748,647 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 3.4% of GDP (2005 est.)

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Disputes - International:

 Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir

Illicit Drugs:

 Transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations

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Last Updated: December 2011

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