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INTRODUCTION


 
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government continues to battle the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization, but its major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the... See More



GEOGRAPHY


Location:

 Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France

Geographic Coordinates:

 40 00 N, 4 00 W

Area:

 Total: 505,370 sq km
Land: 498,980 sq km
Water: 6,390 sq km

Note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 1,917.8 km
Border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline:

 4,964 km (Rank: 28)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)

Climate:

 Temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain:

 Large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural Resources:

 Coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

Land Use:

 Arable land: 27.18%
Permanent crops: 9.85%
Other: 62.97% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 38,000 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 111.1 cu km (2005)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 37.22 cu km/yr (13%/19%/68%)
Per capita: 864 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural Hazards:

 Periodic droughts, occasional flooding

Volcanism: Spain experiences volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - Current Issues:

 Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - Note:

 Strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas

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PEOPLE AND SOCIETY


Nationality:

 Noun: Spaniard(s)
Adjective: Spanish

Ethnic Groups:

 Composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Languages:

 Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2%

Note: Catalan is official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian); in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran), Aranese is official along with Catalan; Galician is official in Galicia; Basque is official in the Basque Country

Religions:

 Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%

Population:

 46,754,784 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 3,646,614/female 3,435,311)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 16,036,556/female 15,637,090)
65 years and over: 17.1% (male 3,389,681/female 4,609,532) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 40.5 years
Male: 39.3 years
Female: 41.9 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.574% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 10.66 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 8.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 3.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization:

 Urban population: 77% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 MADRID (capital) 5.762 million; Barcelona 5.029 million; Valencia 812,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.065 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 3.39 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 3.74 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 81.17 years
Male: 78.16 years
Female: 84.37 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.47 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 9.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 3.705 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital Bed Density:

 3.22 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.4% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 130,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 1,600 (2009 est.)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 15.6% (2007)

Education Expenditures:

 4.3% of GDP (2007)

Literacy:

 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97.9%
Male: 98.7%
Female: 97.2% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 16 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 37.9%
Male: 39.1%
Female: 36.4% (2009)

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GOVERNMENT


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
Conventional short form: Spain
Local long form: Reino de Espana
Local short form: Espana

Government Type:

 Parliamentary monarchy

Capital:

 Name: Madrid
Geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Note: Spain is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands

Administrative Divisions:

 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna (Catalonia), Comunidad Valenciana (Valencian Community), Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)

Note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)

Independence:

 1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain

National Holiday:

 National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas

Constitution:

 Approved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; signed by the king 27 December 1978

Legal System:

 Civil law system with regional variations

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968

Head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Interior) Alfredo Perez RUBALCABA (since 20 October 2010), Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Elena SALGADO Mendez (since 8 April 2009), and Third Vice President (and Minister of Regional Affairs) Manuel CHAVES Gonzalez (since 8 April 2009)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

Note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2015); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president

Election results: Mariano RAJOY elected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - NA; note - RAJOY will become prime minister on 20 or 21 December 2011

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (264 seats as of 2008; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 56 - as of 2008 - appointed by the regional legislatures; members to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)

Elections: Senate - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2015); Congress of Deputies - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2015)

Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 136, PSOE 48, CiU 9, EAJ/PNV 4, Amaiur 3, other 8, members appointed by regional legislatures 56; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 186, PSOE 110, CiU 16, IU 11, Amaiur 7, UPyD 5, EAJ/PNV 5, other 10

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Amaiur [Inaki ANTIGUEDAD]; Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU Renteria]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Guillerme VAZQUEZ Vazquez]; Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta]; Navarra Yes or NaBai [collective leadership] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Joan PUIGCERCOS i Boixassa]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Alfredo PEREZ]; Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo]; Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez]; United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish for "Enough is Enough"); grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Nunca Mais (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students

International Organization Participation:

 ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge DEZCALLAR de Mazarredo
Chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
Telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
Consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Alan D. SOLOMONT
Embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
Mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
Telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
Consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag Description:

 Three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century

Note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre

National Symbols:

 Pillars of Hercules

National Anthem:

 Name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
Lyrics/music: none/unknown

Note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events

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ECONOMY


Economy - Overview:

 Spain's mixed capitalist economy is the 13th largest in the world, and its per capita income roughly matches that of Germany and France. However, after almost 15 years of above average GDP growth, the Spanish economy began to slow in late 2007 and entered into a recession in the second quarter of 2008. GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and by another 0.2% in 2010, making Spain the last major economy to emerge from the global recession. The reversal in Spain's economic growth reflected a significant decline in construction amid an oversupply of housing and falling consumer spending, while exports actually have begun to grow. Government efforts to boost the economy through stimulus spending, extended unemployment benefits, and loan guarantees did not prevent a sharp rise in the unemployment rate, which rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to 20% in 2010. The government budget deficit worsened from 3.8% of GDP in 2008 to 9.2% of GDP in 2010, more than three times the euro-zone limit. Spain's large budget deficit and poor economic growth prospects have made it vulnerable to financial contagion from other highly-indebted euro zone members despite the government's efforts to cut spending, privatize industries, and boost competitiveness through labor market reforms. Spanish banks' high exposure to the collapsed domestic construction and real estate market also poses a continued risk for the sector. The government oversaw a restructuring of the savings bank sector in 2010, and provided some $15 billion in capital to various institutions. Investors remain concerned that Madrid may need to bail out more troubled banks. The Bank of Spain, however, is seeking to boost confidence in the financial sector by pressuring banks to come clean about their losses and consolidate into stronger groups.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $1.369 trillion (2010 est.)
$1.371 trillion (2009 est.)
$1.424 trillion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $1.41 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 -0.1% (2010 est.)
-3.7% (2009 est.)
0.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $29,400 (2010 est.)
$29,600 (2009 est.)
$31,000 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 3.3%
Industry: 26%
Services: 70.7% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 23.09 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 4.2%
Industry: 24%
Services: 71.7% (2009 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 20.1% (2010 est.)
18% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 19.8% (2005)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 32 (2005)
32.5 (1990)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 22.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget:

 Revenues: $503.8 billion
Expenditures: $634.2 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 35.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -9.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 60.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
53.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 2% (2010 est.)
-0.2% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 1.75% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)

Note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 7.223% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.964% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $NA

Note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $811.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$881.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of Broad Money:

 $2.388 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.522 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $3.683 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
$3.451 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $1.172 trillion (31 December 2010)
$1.297 trillion (31 December 2009)
$946.1 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries:

 Textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 0.8% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 275.1 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 50.4%
Hydro: 18.2%
Nuclear: 27.2%
Other: 4.1% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 267.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 14.86 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 8.104 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 29,970 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 1.441 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 240,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 1.584 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 150 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 48 million cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 35.82 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 1.152 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 36.71 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$63.65 billion (2010 est.)
-$75.31 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

 $253 billion (2010 est.)
$228.7 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods

Exports - Partners:

 France 18.7%, Germany 10.7%, Portugal 9.1%, Italy 9%, UK 6.3% (2010)

Imports:

 $315.3 billion (2010 est.)
$287.7 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments

Imports - Partners:

 Germany 12.6%, France 11.5%, Italy 7.3%, China 6.8%, Netherlands 5.6%, UK 4.9% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $31.91 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$28.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $2.57 trillion (30 June 2011)
$2.166 trillion (30 June 2010)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $660.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$648.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $614.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$634.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7198 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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COMMUNICATIONS


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 19.904 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 51.493 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: well developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 persons

Domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 175 telephones per 100 persons

International: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Broadcast Media:

 A mixture of both publicly-operated and privately-owned TV and radio stations broadcasting; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems are accessible; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations broadcasting; overall, hundreds of radio stations operating (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 18, FM 250, shortwave 2 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 379 (2008)

Internet Country Code:

 .es

Internet Hosts:

 3.822 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 28.119 million (2009)

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TRANSPORTATION


Airports:

 154 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 97
Over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 24
Under 914 m: 24 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 57
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 38 (2010)

Heliports:

 9 (2010)

Pipelines:

 Gas 9,359 km; oil 560 km; refined products 3,441 km (2010)

Railways:

 Total: 15,293 km
Broad gauge: 11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)
Standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 1,954 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (2010)

Roadways:

 Total: 681,298 km
Paved: 681,298 km (includes 15,152 km of expressways) (2008)

Waterways:

 1,000 km (2009)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 138
By type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 17, chemical tanker 12, container 8, liquefied gas 13, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 40, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 13, vehicle carrier 5
Foreign-owned: 26 (Canada 5, Denmark 2, Germany 5, Italy 1, Mexico 2, Norway 10, Switzerland 1)
Registered in other countries: 107 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 9, Belize 1, Brazil 12, Cape Verde 1, Cyprus 7, France 1, Malta 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 40, Portugal 15, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands)

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MILITARY


Military Branches:

 Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 20 years of age (2004)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 11,759,557
Females age 16-49: 11,204,688 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 9,603,939
Females age 16-49: 9,116,928 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 217,244
Female: 205,278 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)

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TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES


Disputes - International:

 In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Illicit Drugs:

 Despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime

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Last Updated: December 2011

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