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GEOGRAPHY


Location:

 Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic Coordinates:

 8 00 N, 2 00 W

Area:

 Total: 238,533 sq km
Land: 227,533 sq km
Water: 11,000 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Oregon

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 2,094 km
Border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline:

 539 km (Rank: 102)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:

 Tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain:

 Mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m

Natural Resources:

 Gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone

Land Use:

 Arable land: 17.54%
Permanent crops: 9.22%
Other: 73.24% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 340 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 53.2 cu km (2001)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.98 cu km/yr (24%/10%/66%)
Per capita: 44 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts

Environment - Current Issues:

 Recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - Note:

 Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

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PEOPLE AND SOCIETY


Nationality:

 Noun: Ghanaian(s)
Adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic Groups:

 Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% (2000 census)

Languages:

 Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% (2000 census)

Religions:

 Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1% (2000 census)

Population:

 24,791,073 (July 2011 est.)

Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 36.5% (male 4,568,273/female 4,468,939)
15-64 years: 60% (male 7,435,449/female 7,436,204)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 399,737/female 482,471) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 21.4 years
Male: 21.1 years
Female: 21.6 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 1.822% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 27.55 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 8.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization:

 Urban population: 51% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 ACCRA (capital) 2.269 million; Kumasi 1.773 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 350 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 48.55 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 51.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 61 years
Male: 59.78 years
Female: 62.25 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 3.48 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 10.6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.085 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital Bed Density:

 0.93 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 90% of population
Rural: 74% of population
Total: 82% of population
Unimproved:
Urban: 10% of population
Rural: 26% of population
Total: 18% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 18% of population
Rural: 7% of population
Total: 13% of population
Unimproved:
Urban: 82% of population
Rural: 93% of population
Total: 87% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 1.8% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 260,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 18,000 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies

Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds(2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 14.3% (2008)

Education Expenditures:

 5.4% of GDP (2005)

Literacy:

 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 57.9%
Male: 66.4%
Female: 49.8% (2000 census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 10 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 10 years (2009)

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GOVERNMENT


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
Conventional short form: Ghana
Former: Gold Coast

Government Type:

 Constitutional democracy

Capital:

 Name: Accra
Geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Independence:

 6 March 1957 (from the UK)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution:

 Approved 28 April 1992

Legal System:

 Mixed system of English common law and customary law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 2009); Vice President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 7 January 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 2009); Vice President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 7 January 2009)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament

Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 and 28 December 2008 (next to be held on 7 December 2012)

Election results: John Evans Atta MILLS elected president in run-off election; percent of vote - John Evans Atta MILLS 50.23%, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO 49.77%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Parliament (230 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote in single-seat constituencies to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 7 December 2008 (next to be held on 7 December 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 114, NPP 107, PNC 2, CPP 1, independent 4, other 2

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court; High Court; Court of Appeal; regional tribunals

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Convention People's Party or CPP [Ladi NYLANDER]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTEY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Jake OBETSEBI-LAMPEY]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles WAYO]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Christian Aid (water rights); Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform); National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights); Oxfam (water rights); Public Citizen (water rights); Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform); Third World Network (education reform)

International Organization Participation:

 ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel Ohene AGYEKUM
Chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Donald G. TEITELBAUM
Embassy: 24 4th Circular Rd. Cantonments, Accra
Mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
Telephone: [233] (21) 741-000
FAX: [233] (21) 741-389

Flag Description:

 Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom

Note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

National Symbols:

 Black star; golden eagle

National Anthem:

 Name: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
Lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO

Note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, once when a republic was declared in 1960 and again after a 1966 coup

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ECONOMY


Economy - Overview:

 Ghana is well endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-third of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 40% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana's offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December, 2010, and is expected to boost economic growth. Estimated oil reserves have jumped to almost 700 million barrels. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. In 2009 Ghana signed a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF to improve macroeconomic stability, private sector competitiveness, human resource development, and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with high prices for gold and cocoa helped sustain GDP growth in 2008-10. In early 2010 President John Atta MILLS targeted recovery from high inflation and current account and budget deficits as his priorities.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $61.97 billion (2010 est.)
$58.61 billion (2009 est.)
$56 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $31.08 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 5.7% (2010 est.)
4.7% (2009 est.)
8.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $2,500 (2010 est.)
$2,500 (2009 est.)
$2,400 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 29.9%
Industry: 18.6%
Services: 51.4% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 10.56 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 56%
Industry: 15%
Services: 29% (2005 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 11% (2000 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 28.5% (2007 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2%
Highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 39.4 (2005-06)
40.7 (1999)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 35,653 (Liberia); 8,517 (Togo) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 18.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget:

 Revenues: $5.381 billion
Expenditures: $7.757 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 17.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -7.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 34% of GDP (2010 est.)
33.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 10.7% (2010 est.)
19.3% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 18% (31 December 2009)
17% (31 December 2008)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 22.7% (31 December 2010 est.)
28.8% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$2.179 billion (31 December 2006)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$2.174 billion (31 December 2006)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $7.102 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.547 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $10.78 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$8.292 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $8.747 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$7.408 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $3.531 billion (31 December 2010)
$2.508 billion (31 December 2009)
$3.394 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Industries:

 Mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 8.167 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 5%
Hydro: 95%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 6.06 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 538 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 263 million kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - Production:

 8,880 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 60,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 5,752 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 68,830 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 660 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$2.324 billion (2010 est.)
-$1.199 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

 $7.892 billion (2010 est.)
$5.84 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticulture

Exports - Partners:

 Netherlands 11.7%, UK 7%, France 5.7%, US 5.6%, Ukraine 5%, Belgium 4.6% (2010)

Imports:

 $10.95 billion (2010 est.)
$8.046 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports - Partners:

 China 16.6%, Nigeria 12.7%, US 8.4%, Cote dIvoire 6.2%, UK 4.5%, France 4.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $4.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.165 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $6.795 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.72 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Ghanian Cedi to Any Currency

Cedis (GHC) per US dollar -
1.429 (2010)
1.409 (2009)
1.1 (2008)
0.95 (2007)
9,174.8 (2006)

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COMMUNICATIONS


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 277,900 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 17.436 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra

Domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 60 per 100 persons and rising

International: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 State-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately-owned TV stations and a large number of privately-owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 0, FM 86, shortwave 3 (2007)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 7 (2007)

Internet Country Code:

 .gh

Internet Hosts:

 41,082 (2010)

Internet Users:

 1.297 million (2009)

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TRANSPORTATION


Airports:

 11 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 7
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Pipelines:

 Gas 1 km; oil 5 km; refined products 312 km (2010)

Railways:

 Total: 947 km
Narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2009)

Roadways:

 Total: 62,221 km
Paved: 9,955 km
Unpaved: 52,266 km (2006)

Waterways:

 1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 4
By type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
Foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Takoradi, Tema

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MILITARY


Military Branches:

 Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 6,268,191
Females age 16-49: 6,194,339 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 4,136,406
Females age 16-49: 4,220,761 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 267,896
Female: 260,992 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.7% of GDP (2009)

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TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES


Disputes - International:

 Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire

Illicit Drugs:

 Illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use

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Last Updated: December 2011

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