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Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule. This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African continent. President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled the country since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996, 2002, and 2009 presidential elections - as well as the 1999, 2004, and 2008 legislative elections - were widely seen as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has discouraged political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the... See More



 Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic Coordinates:

 2 00 N, 10 00 E


 Total: 28,051 sq km
Land: 28,051 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Maryland

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 539 km
Border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km


 296 km (Rank: 135)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


 Tropical; always hot, humid


 Coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural Resources:

 Petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay

Land Use:

 Arable land: 4.63%
Permanent crops: 3.57%
Other: 91.8% (2005)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 26 cu km (2001)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.11 cu km/yr (83%/16%/1%)
Per capita: 220 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Violent windstorms; flash floods

Volcanism: Santa Isabel (elev. 3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, forms Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea

Environment - Current Issues:

 Tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Insular and continental regions widely separated

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 Noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
Adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic Groups:

 Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)


 Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)


 Nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices


 668,225 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 41.5% (male 140,946/female 136,294)
15-64 years: 54.4% (male 179,141/female 184,358)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 11,880/female 15,606) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 19.1 years
Male: 18.5 years
Female: 19.7 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 2.641% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 35.43 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 9.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 40% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 3.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 MALABO (capital) 128,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 280 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 77.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 78.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 76.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 62.37 years
Male: 61.4 years
Female: 63.36 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 4.91 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 2.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital Bed Density:

 1.92 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 45% of population
Rural: 42% of population
Total: 43% of population
Urban: 55% of population
Rural: 58% of population
Total: 57% of population (2000)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 5% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 20,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria and yellow fever
Animal contact disease: rabies (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 10.6% (2004)

Education Expenditures:

 0.6% of GDP (2003)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 87%
Male: 93.4%
Female: 80.5% (2000 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 8 years
Male: 9 years
Female: 7 years (2002)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
Local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee equatoriale
Local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee equatoriale
Former: Spanish Guinea

Government Type:



 Name: Malabo
Geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas


 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 12 October (1968)


 Approved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995

Legal System:

 Mixed system of civil and customary law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)

Head of government: Prime Minister Ignacio MILAM Tang (since 8 July 2008)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

Election results: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 95.8%, Placido Mico ABOGO 3.6%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 4 May 2008 (next to be held in 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 89, EC 10, CPDS 1

Note: Parliament has little power since the constitution vests all executive authority in the president

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Tribunal

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MICO Abogo]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO] (ruling party); Electoral Coalition or EC; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Avelino MOCACHE]; Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ Ayecaba]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform); EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Purificacion ANGUE ONDO
Chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto M. FERNANDEZ
Embassy: KM-3, Carreterade de Aeropuerto (El Paraiso), Apartado 95, Malabo note - relocated embassy is opened for limited functions; inquiries should continue to be directed to the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon
Mailing address: B.P. 817, Yaounde, Cameroon; US Embassy Yaounde, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
Telephone: [237] 2220-1500
FAX: [237] 2220-1572

Flag Description:

 Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence

National Symbols:

 Silk cotton tree

National Anthem:

 Name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)
Lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)

Note: adopted 1968

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Economy - Overview:

 The discovery and exploitation of large oil and gas reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth but fluctuating oil prices have produced huge swings in GDP growth in recent years. Forestry and farming are also minor components of GDP. Subsistence farming is the dominate form of livelihood. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth (the government has stated its intention to reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture). A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues; however, in 2010, under Equatorial Guinea's candidacy in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, the government published oil revenue figures for the first time. Undeveloped natural resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals. Growth remained strong in 2008, when oil production peaked, but slowed in 2009-10, as the price of oil and the production level fell.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $23.82 billion (2010 est.)
$24.02 billion (2009 est.)
$22.71 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $14.49 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 -0.8% (2010 est.)
5.7% (2009 est.)
10.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $36,600 (2010 est.)
$37,900 (2009 est.)
$36,800 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars; population figures are uncertain for Equatorial Guinea; these per capita income figures are based on a estimated population of less than 700,000; some estimates put the figure as high as 1.2 million people; if true, the per capita GDP figures would be significantly lower

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 2.2%
Industry: 93.9%
Services: 3.8% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 195,200 (2007)

Unemployment Rate:

 22.3% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 35.2% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $6.598 billion
Expenditures: $6.851 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 45.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -1.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 5.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
5.4% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 8.2% (2010 est.)
7.1% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 8.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 15% (31 December 2010 est.)
15% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $1.11 billion (31 December 2008)
$835.2 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $132.1 million (31 December 2008)
$174.5 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $1.889 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.342 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $2.109 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.527 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $171.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.534 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber


 Petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 1.8% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 92 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 94.3%
Hydro: 5.7%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 85.56 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 322,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 2,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 395,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 1,729 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 6.27 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 1.55 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 4.72 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$1.302 billion (2010 est.)
-$1.95 billion (2009 est.)


 $10.39 billion (2010 est.)
$8.495 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Petroleum products, timber

Exports - Partners:

 US 24.3%, Italy 10.3%, Spain 10.1%, South Korea 8.3%, Canada 7.6%, China 6.3%, Netherlands 6.1%, Brazil 5.9% (2010)


 $5.7 billion (2010 est.)
$5.258 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Petroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles

Imports - Partners:

 China 21.4%, Spain 13.8%, US 12.7%, France 10.9%, Cote dIvoire 6.7%, UK 6.3%, Italy 5.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $2.346 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.252 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $794.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$757.2 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert CFA Franc (BEAC) to Any Currency

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
481.83 (2007)
522.4 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 13,500 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 399,300 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and good mobile coverage

Domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2009 stood at about 70 percent of the population

International: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 State maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 5 (2001)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 1 (2001)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 9 (2010)

Internet Users:

 14,400 (2009)

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 7 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2010)


 Gas 37 km (2010)


 Total: 2,880 km (2000)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 4
By type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2
Foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Bata, Luba, Malabo (2010)

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Military Branches:

 National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatoria, GNGE (Army), with Coast Guard (Navy) and Air Wing) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; service obligation 2 years; women hold only administrative positions in the Coast Guard (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 151,147
Females age 16-49: 150,345 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 113,277
Females age 16-49: 115,320 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 7,398
Female: 7,126 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 0.1% of GDP (2009)

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Disputes - International:

 In 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delay final delimitation; UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay

Trafficking in Persons:

 Current situation: Equatorial Guinea is primarily a destination country for children trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and possibly for the purpose of sexual exploitation; children have been trafficked from nearby countries for domestic servitude, market labor, ambulant vending, and possibly sexual exploitation; women may also be trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for sexual exploitation

Tier rating: Tier 3 - Equatorial Guinea is not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards on the elimination of trafficking; despite limited law enforcement action against suspected human smugglers and traffickers, including complicit public officials, the government has made no tangible efforts to provide victims of trafficking with the protective services mandated in its 2004 anti-trafficking law; prevention efforts have decreased, as the government did not hold any public awareness campaigns and its interagency commission on human trafficking took little, if any, action; the government's response to human trafficking has been inadequate, particularly given the government's substantial financial resources (2011)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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