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INTRODUCTION


 
Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by 1815 Guyana had become a British possession. The abolition of slavery led to black settlement of urban areas and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations. This ethnocultural divide has persisted and has led to turbulent politics. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966, and since then it has been ruled mostly by socialist-oriented governments. In 1992, Cheddi JAGAN was elected president in what is considered the country's first free and fair election since independence. After his death five years later, his wife, Janet JAGAN, became president but resigned in 1999 due to poor health. Her successor, Bharrat JAGDEO, was reelected in 2001 and again in 2006.



GEOGRAPHY


Location:

 Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela

Geographic Coordinates:

 5 00 N, 59 00 W

Area:

 Total: 214,969 sq km
Land: 196,849 sq km
Water: 18,120 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Idaho

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 2,949 km
Border countries: Brazil 1,606 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km

Coastline:

 459 km (Rank: 111)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin

Climate:

 Tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)

Terrain:

 Mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Roraima 2,835 m

Natural Resources:

 Bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish

Land Use:

 Arable land: 2.23%
Permanent crops: 0.14%
Other: 97.63% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 1,500 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 241 cu km (2000)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 1.64 cu km/yr (2%/1%/98%)
Per capita: 2,187 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Flash floods are a constant threat during rainy seasons

Environment - Current Issues:

 Water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 The third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Venezuela and Suriname respectively

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PEOPLE AND SOCIETY


Nationality:

 Noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Guyanese

Ethnic Groups:

 East Indian 43.5%, black (African) 30.2%, mixed 16.7%, Amerindian 9.1%, other 0.5% (2002 census)

Languages:

 English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu

Religions:

 Protestant 30.5% (Pentecostal 16.9%, Anglican 6.9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Methodist 1.7%), Hindu 28.4%, Roman Catholic 8.1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, Muslim 7.2%, other Christian 17.7%, other 4.3%, none 4.3% (2002 census)

Population:

 744,768 (July 2011 est.)

Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 31.9% (male 120,981/female 116,654)
15-64 years: 63.3% (male 235,566/female 235,717)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 14,801/female 21,049) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 23.9 years
Male: 23.2 years
Female: 24.6 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.44% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 17.12 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -14.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization:

 Urban population: 29% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 GEORGETOWN (capital) 132,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 270 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 36.76 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 41.09 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 67.08 years
Male: 63.27 years
Female: 71.07 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 2.34 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 6.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.48 physicians/1,000 population (2000)

Hospital Bed Density:

 1.9 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 98% of population
Rural: 93% of population
Total: 94% of population
Unimproved:
Urban: 2% of population
Rural: 7% of population
Total: 6% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 85% of population
Rural: 80% of population
Total: 81% of population
Unimproved:
Urban: 15% of population
Rural: 20% of population
Total: 19% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 1.2% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 5,900 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
Water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 10.8% (2007)

Education Expenditures:

 6.1% of GDP (2007)

Literacy:

 Definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
Total population: 91.8%
Male: 92%
Female: 91.6% (2002 Census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 12 years (2009)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 24.1%
Male: 20.6%
Female: 31.3% (2002)

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GOVERNMENT


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
Conventional short form: Guyana
Former: British Guiana

Government Type:

 Republic

Capital:

 Name: Georgetown
Geographic coordinates: 6 48 N, 58 10 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo

Independence:

 26 May 1966 (from the UK)

National Holiday:

 Republic Day, 23 February (1970)

Constitution:

 October 6, 1980

Legal System:

 Common law system, based on the English model, with some Roman-Dutch civil law influence

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Donald RAMOTAR (since 03 December 2011);

Head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since October 1992, except for a period as chief of state after the death of President Cheddi JAGAN on 6 March 1997)

Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature

Elections: president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list in parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five years (no term limits); elections last held on 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Donald RAMOTAR elected president, percent of vote 48.6%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly (65 seats; members elected by popular vote, also not more than 4 non-elected non-voting ministers and 2 non-elected non-voting parliamentary secretaries appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2016)

Election results: percent of vote by party - PPP/C 48.6%, APNU 40%, AFC 10.3%, other 1.1%; seats by party - PPP/C 32, APNU 26, AFC 7

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the High Court and the Court of Appeal, with right of final appeal to the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Alliance for Change or AFC [Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Guyana Action Party or GAP [Everall FRANKLIN]; Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; A Partnership for National Unity or APNU [David GRANGER]; People's National Congress/Reform or PNC/R [Robert Herman Orlando CORBIN]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Donald RAMOTAR]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Guyana [Peter RAMSAROOP]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Clive THOMAS]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Amerindian People's Association; Guyana Bar Association; Guyana Citizens Initiative; Guyana Human Rights Association; Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress

International Organization Participation:

 ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, PetroCaribe, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Bayney KARRAN
Chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900
FAX: [1] (202) 232-1297
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Karen L. WILLIAMS
Embassy: US Embassy, 100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
Mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown; US Embassy, 3170 Georgetown Place, Washington DC 20521-3170
Telephone: [592] 225-4900 through 4909
FAX: [592] 225-8497

Flag Description:

 Green, with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green; green represents forest and foliage; yellow stands for mineral resources and a bright future; white symbolizes Guyana's rivers; red signifies zeal and the sacrifice of the people; black indicates perseverance

National Symbols:

 Canje pheasant (hoatzin); jaguar

National Anthem:

 Name: "Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains"
Lyrics/music: Archibald Leonard LUKERL/Robert Cyril Gladstone POTTER

Note: adopted 1966

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ECONOMY


Economy - Overview:

 The Guyanese economy exhibited moderate economic growth in recent years and is based largely on agriculture and extractive industries. The economy is heavily dependent upon the export of six commodities - sugar, gold, bauxite, shrimp, timber, and rice - which represent nearly 60% of the country's GDP and are highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions and fluctuations in commodity prices. Guyana's entrance into the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME) in January 2006 has broadened the country's export market, primarily in the raw materials sector. Economic recovery since a 2005 flood-related contraction was buoyed by increases in remittances and foreign direct investment in the sugar and rice industries as well as the mining sector. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure. The government is juggling a sizable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. In March 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank, Guyana's principal donor, canceled Guyana's nearly $470 million debt, equivalent to nearly 48% of GDP, which along with other Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) debt forgiveness brought the debt-to-GDP ratio down from 183% in 2006 to 120% in 2007. Guyana became heavily indebted as a result of the inward-looking, state-led development model pursued in the 1970s and 1980s. Growth slowed in 2009-10 as a result of the world recession. The slowdown in the domestic economy and lower import costs helped to narrow the country's current account deficit, despite generally lower earnings from exports.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $5.379 billion (2010 est.)
$5.19 billion (2009 est.)
$5.024 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $2.215 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 3.6% (2010 est.)
3.3% (2009 est.)
2% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $7,200 (2010 est.)
$6,900 (2009 est.)
$6,600 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 24%
Industry: 24.4%
Services: 51.5% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 333,900 (2007 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Unemployment Rate:

 11% (2007)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 NA%

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 1.3%
Highest 10%: 33.8% (1999)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 43.2 (1999)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 30.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget:

 Revenues: $587.3 million
Expenditures: $653.6 million (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 26.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 57% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 4.5% (2010 est.)
2.9% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.75% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 14.54% (31 December 2010 est.)
14.54% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $344.2 million (31 December 2008)
$315.2 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $817.6 million (31 December 2008)
$728.8 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $397.2 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$326.5 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.498 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.296 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $921.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$826.8 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $339.8 million (31 December 2010)
$287 million (31 December 2009)
$289.9 million (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Sugarcane, rice, edible oils; shrimp, fish, beef, pork, poultry

Industries:

 Bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 2.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 820 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 99.4%
Hydro: 0.6%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 688 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 10,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 10,480 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$274.7 million (2010 est.)
-$254.1 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

 $882.7 million (2010 est.)
$763 million (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Sugar, gold, bauxite, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber

Exports - Partners:

 Canada 24.6%, US 24.6%, Ukraine 6%, Netherlands 4.9%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.6%, Portugal 4.5%, Jamaica 4.5%, UK 4.1% (2010)

Imports:

 $1.386 billion (2010 est.)
$1.161 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food

Imports - Partners:

 Trinidad and Tobago 24.2%, US 23.1%, Cuba 6.7%, China 6.7%, South Korea 4.1% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $782.1 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$631.4 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $804.3 million (30 September 2008)
$1.2 billion (2002)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Guyana Dollar to Any Currency

Guyanese dollars (GYD) per US dollar -
204.07 (2010)
203.95 (2009)
203.86 (2008)
201.89 (2007)
200.28 (2006)

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COMMUNICATIONS


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 149,900 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 555,400 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: fair system for long-distance service; microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services

Domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 35 per 100 persons in 2005

International: country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast Media:

 Government-dominated broadcast media; the National Communications Network (NCN) TV is state-owned; a few private TV stations relay satellite services; the state owns and operates 2 radio stations broadcasting on multiple frequencies capable of reaching the entire country; government limits on licensing of new private radio stations continue to constrain competition in broadcast media (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 1 (2009)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 3 (1 public station; 2 private stations which relay US satellite services) (1997)

Internet Country Code:

 .gy

Internet Hosts:

 8,840 (2010)

Internet Users:

 189,600 (2009)

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TRANSPORTATION


Airports:

 96 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 7 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 86
914 to 1,523 m: 13
Under 914 m: 73 (2010)

Roadways:

 Total: 7,970 km
Paved: 590 km
Unpaved: 7,380 km (2001)

Waterways:

 330 km (the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km respectively) (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 8
By type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1
Registered in other countries: 3 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Georgetown

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MILITARY


Military Branches:

 Guyana Defense Force: Army (includes Coast Guard, Air Corps) (2009)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 189,840 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 133,239
Females age 16-49: 147,719 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 8,849
Female: 8,460 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.8% of GDP (2006)

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TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES


Disputes - International:

 All of the area west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before UNCLOS that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks arbitration under provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to resolve the long-standing dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters

Illicit Drugs:

 Transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis; rising money laundering related to drug trafficking and human smuggling

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Last Updated: December 2011

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