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Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, sluggish economic growth, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy... See More



 Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic Coordinates:

 42 50 N, 12 50 E


 Total: 301,340 sq km
Land: 294,140 sq km
Water: 7,200 sq km

Note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly larger than Arizona

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 1,899.2 km
Border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km


 7,600 km (Rank: 16)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


 Predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south


 Mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)

Natural Resources:

 Coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land

Land Use:

 Arable land: 26.41%
Permanent crops: 9.09%
Other: 64.5% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 39,500 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 175 cu km (2005)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 41.98 cu km/yr (18%/37%/45%)
Per capita: 723 cu m/yr (1998)

Natural Hazards:

 Regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

Volcanism: Italy experiences significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini

Environment - Current Issues:

 Air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

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 Noun: Italian(s)
Adjective: Italian

Ethnic Groups:

 Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)


 Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)


 Roman Catholic 90% (approximately; about one-third practicing), other 10% (includes mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community)


 61,016,804 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 13.8% (male 4,315,292/female 4,124,624)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 19,888,901/female 20,330,495)
65 years and over: 20.3% (male 5,248,418/female 7,109,074) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 43.5 years
Male: 42.4 years
Female: 44.7 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.42% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 9.18 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 9.84 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 4.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 68% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 ROME (capital) 3.357 million; Milan 2.962 million; Naples 2.27 million; Turin 1.662 million; Palermo 872,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.059 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 3.59 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 81.77 years
Male: 79.16 years
Female: 84.53 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.39 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 5.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 4.242 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 3.7 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.3% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 140,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 9.8% (2005)

Education Expenditures:

 4.3% of GDP (2007)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.4%
Male: 98.8%
Female: 98% (2001 census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 16 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 25.4%
Male: 23.3%
Female: 28.7% (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Italian Republic
Conventional short form: Italy
Local long form: Repubblica Italiana
Local short form: Italia
Former: Kingdom of Italy

Government Type:



 Name: Rome
Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)

Regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)

Autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)


 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)

National Holiday:

 Republic Day, 2 June (1946)


 Passed 11 December 1947, effective 1 January 1948; amended many times

Legal System:

 Civil law system; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006)

Head of government: Interim Prime Minister Mario MONTI (since 16 November 2011); note - in Italy the prime minister is referred to as the president of the Council of Ministers

Cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the president

Elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2013); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament

Election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the fourth round of voting; electoral college vote - 543

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats; members elected by proportional vote with the winning coalition in each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; members to serve five-year terms; and up to 5 senators for life appointed by the president of the Republic) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; members elected by popular vote with the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; members to serve five-year terms); note - it has not been clarified if each president has the power to designate up to five senators or if five is the number of senators for life who might sit in the Senate

Elections: Senate - last held on 13-14 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2013); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 13-14 April 2008 (next to be held in April 2013)

Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - S. BERLUSCONI coalition 174 (PdL 147, LN 25, MpA 2), W. VELTRONI coalition 132 (PD 118, IdV 3), UdC 3, other 6; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - S. BERLUSCONI coalition 344 (PdL 276, LN 60, MpA 8), W. VELTRONI coalition 246 (PD 217, IdV 29), UdC 36, other 4

Judicial Branch:

 Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts); Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Center-Right coalition: Lega Nord or LN [Umberto BOSSI]; Movement for Autonomy or MpA [Raffaele LOMBARDO]; People of Freedom or PdL [Silvio BERLUSCONI]
Center-Left coalition: Democratic Party or PD [Pier Luigi BERSANI]; Italy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]
Other non-allied parties: Future and Liberty Party or FLI [Gianfranco FINI]; Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Manufacturers and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria; organized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)

International Organization Participation:

 ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
Chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
Consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
Consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador David THORNE
Embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
Mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
Telephone: [39] (06) 46741
FAX: [39] (06) 488-2672, 4674-2356
Consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag Description:

 Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard

Note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

National Symbols:

 White, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia)

National Anthem:

 Name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
Lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO

Note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)

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Economy - Overview:

 Italy has a diversified industrial economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, welfare-dependent, agricultural south, with high unemployment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 15% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy has moved slowly on implementing needed structural reforms, such as reducing graft, overhauling costly entitlement programs, and increasing employment opportunities for young workers, particularly women. The international financial crisis worsened conditions in Italy's labor market, with unemployment rising from 6.2% in 2007 to 8.4% in 2010, but in the longer-term Italy's low fertility rate and quota-driven immigration policies will increasingly strain its economy. A rise in exports and investment driven by the global economic recovery nevertheless helped the economy grow by about 1% in 2010 following a 5% contraction in 2009. The Italian government has struggled to limit government spending, but Italy's exceedingly high public debt remains above 115% of GDP, and its fiscal deficit - just 1.5% of GDP in 2007 - exceeded 5% in 2009 and 4% in 2010, as the costs of servicing the country's debt rose.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $1.774 trillion (2010 est.)
$1.751 trillion (2009 est.)
$1.847 trillion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $2.055 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 1.3% (2010 est.)
-5.2% (2009 est.)
-1.3% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $30,500 (2010 est.)
$30,100 (2009 est.)
$31,800 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 1.9%
Industry: 25.3%
Services: 72.8% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 24.99 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 4.2%
Industry: 30.7%
Services: 65.1% (2005)

Unemployment Rate:

 8.4% (2010 est.)
7.8% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.3%
Highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 32 (2006)
27.3 (1995)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 19.4% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $958.9 billion
Expenditures: $1.053 trillion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 46.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -4.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 119.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
115.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.6% (2010 est.)
0.8% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 1.75% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)

Note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 4.032% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.757% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $1.205 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.299 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of Broad Money:

 $2.065 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.895 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $3.221 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
$3.084 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $318.1 billion (31 December 2010)
$317.3 billion (31 December 2009)
$520.9 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish


 Tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 6.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 269.6 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 78.6%
Hydro: 18.4%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 3% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 314.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 2.121 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 44.45 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 151,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 1.528 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 529,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 1.8 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 476.5 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 8.298 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 82.98 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 139 million cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 75.35 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 63.57 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$67.94 billion (2010 est.)
-$42.96 billion (2009 est.)


 $448.4 billion (2010 est.)
$407.5 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, and nonferrous metals

Exports - Partners:

 Germany 13.2%, France 11.7%, Spain 5.9%, US 5.8%, UK 5.4%, Switzerland 4.6% (2010)


 $473.1 billion (2010 est.)
$406 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco

Imports - Partners:

 Germany 16.2%, France 8.5%, China 7.9%, Netherlands 5.4%, Spain 4.5% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $158.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$132.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $2.684 trillion (30 June 2011 est.)
$2.223 trillion (30 June 2010 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $601.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$578.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $403 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$394 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7715 (2010)
0.7179 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 21.6 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 82 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

Domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

International: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat

Broadcast Media:

 Two Italian media giants - the publicly-owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately-owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations - dominate; additional broadcasts by a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; some 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 23.16 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 29.235 million (2009)

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 132 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 101
Over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 31
Under 914 m: 13 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
Under 914 m: 19 (2010)


 6 (2010)


 Gas 18,348 km; oil 1,241 km (2010)


 Total: 20,254 km
Standard gauge: 18,611 km 1.435-m gauge (12,662 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,290 km 0.950-m gauge (151 km electrified); 231 km 0.850-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 487,700 km
Paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)


 2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2009)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 667
By type: bulk carrier 81, cargo 47, carrier 1, chemical tanker 169, container 22, liquefied gas 25, passenger 23, passenger/cargo 160, petroleum tanker 56, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 34, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 34
Foreign-owned: 78 (Denmark 4, France 2, Germany 1, Greece 8, Luxembourg 12, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Sweden 1, Switzerland 6, Taiwan 11, Turkey 3, UK 2, US 21)
Registered in other countries: 213 (Bahamas 5, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 6, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Kiribati 1, Liberia 48, Malta 52, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 9, Norway 3, Panama 23, Portugal 10, Russia 9, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 3, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 2, UK 4, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Oil terminals: Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal

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Military Branches:

 Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-27 year of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished January 2005; women may serve in any military branch; 10-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 45 (Army and Air Force) or 39 (Navy) (2006)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 13,865,688
Females age 16-49: 14,003,755 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 11,247,446
Females age 16-49: 11,348,695 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 288,188
Female: 281,671 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

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Disputes - International:

 Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa

Illicit Drugs:

 Important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling

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Last Updated: December 2011

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