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A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won... See More



 Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic Coordinates:

 41 00 N, 75 00 E


 Total: 199,951 sq km
Land: 191,801 sq km
Water: 8,150 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 3,051 km
Border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,224 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km


 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 221)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 Dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone


 Peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
Highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

Natural Resources:

 Abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land Use:

 Arable land: 6.55%
Permanent crops: 0.28%
Other: 93.17%

Note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural-growth walnut forest (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 10,196 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 46.5 cu km (1997)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 10.08 cu km/yr (3%/3%/94%)
Per capita: 1,916 cu m/yr (2000)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

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 Noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
Adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic Groups:

 Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uighur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)


 Kyrgyz (official) 64.7%, Uzbek 13.6%, Russian (official) 12.5%, Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census)


 Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%


 5,587,443 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 29.3% (male 834,024/female 801,750)
15-64 years: 65.4% (male 1,790,534/female 1,865,521)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 114,200/female 181,414) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 25 years
Male: 24.1 years
Female: 26 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 1.427% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 23.66 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 6.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 35% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 BISHKEK (capital) 854,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.053 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 81 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 29.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 34.01 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 24.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 70.04 years
Male: 66.04 years
Female: 74.24 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 2.63 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 4.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 2.301 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital Bed Density:

 5.06 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 99% of population
Rural: 85% of population
Total: 90% of population
Urban: 1% of population
Rural: 15% of population
Total: 10% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 94% of population
Rural: 93% of population
Total: 93% of population
Urban: 6% of population
Rural: 7% of population
Total: 7% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.3% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 9,800 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 2.7% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 5.9% of GDP (2008)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.7%
Male: 99.3%
Female: 98.1% (1999 census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 13 years (2009)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 14.6%
Male: 13.6%
Female: 16.2% (2006)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
Conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
Local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Local short form: Kyrgyzstan
Former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Government Type:



 Name: Bishkek
Geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
Time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)

Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


 31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 31 August (1991)


 June 27, 2010

Legal System:

 Civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)

Head of government: Prime Minister Omurbek BABANOV (since 1 December 2011); Deputy Prime Minister - Ibragim JUNUSOV (since 17 December 2010)

Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense and security, are appointed solely by the president

Elections: Almazbek ATAMBAYEV elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next scheduled for 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government

Election results: Almazbek ATAMBAYEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAYEV 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIYEV 14.3%, other candidates 7.8%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 10 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)

Election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ata-Jurt 28, SDPK 26, Ar-Namys 25, Respublika 23, Ata-Meken 18

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (judges of both the Supreme and Constitutional Courts are appointed for 10-year terms by the Jogorku Kengesh on the recommendation of the president; their mandatory retirement age is 70 years); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs for a probationary period of five years, then 10 years)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV]; Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]; Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV, Miroslav NIYAZOV]; Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV]; Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Adilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAEVA]

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Mukhtar JUMALIEV
Chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
Consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Tatiana GFOELLER
Embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264

Flag Description:

 Red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth

National Symbols:


National Anthem:

 Name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
Lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV

Note: adopted 1992

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Economy - Overview:

 Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a dominant agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. The economy depends heavily on gold exports - mainly from output at the Kumtor gold mine. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. In 2005, the BAKIEV government and international financial institutions initiated a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. Bishkek agreed to pursue much needed tax reform and, in 2006, became eligible for the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative. The government made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit, nearly closing the gap between revenues and expenditures in 2006, before boosting expenditures more than 20% in 2007-08. GDP grew about 8% annually in 2007-08, partly due to higher gold prices internationally, but slowed to 2.3% in 2009. The overthrow of President BAKIEV in April, 2010 and subsequent ethnic clashes left hundreds dead and damaged infrastructure. Shrinking trade and agricultural production, as well as political instability, caused GDP to contract about 3.5% in 2010. The fiscal deficit widened to 11% of GDP, reflecting significant increases in crisis-related spending, including both rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure and bank recapitalization. Progress in reconstruction, fighting corruption, restructuring domestic industry, and attracting foreign aid and investment are key to future growth.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $12.02 billion (2010 est.)
$12.18 billion (2009 est.)
$11.84 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $4.615 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 -1.4% (2010 est.)
2.9% (2009 est.)
7.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $2,200 (2010 est.)
$2,200 (2009 est.)
$2,200 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 20.7%
Industry: 28%
Services: 51.3% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 2.344 million (2007)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 48%
Industry: 12.5%
Services: 39.5% (2005 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 18% (2004 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 40% (2004 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 4.1%
Highest 10%: 27.9% (2007)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 33.4 (2007)
29 (2001)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 28.1% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $1.262 billion
Expenditures: $1.496 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 27.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -5.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 8% (2010 est.)
6.9% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 2.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
15.11% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 29.425% (31 December 2010 est.)
21.683% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$911.1 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$303.7 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $771.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$824.9 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.246 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $552 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$573.8 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $79 million (31 December 2010)
$71.84 million (31 December 2009)
$93.79 million (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool


 Small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 9.8% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 11.7 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 7.6%
Hydro: 92.4%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 7.474 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 913 million kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 535 million kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - Production:

 946 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 16,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 2,042 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 15,940 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 40 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 15.4 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 665.4 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 640 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$397.4 million (2010 est.)
-$300.2 million (2009 est.)


 $1.783 billion (2010 est.)
$1.7 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, hydropower; machinery; shoes

Exports - Partners:

 Russia 35.7%, Uzbekistan 21.9%, Kazakhstan 17.3%, China 5.4%, UAE 4.6%, Afghanistan 4.3% (2010)


 $2.981 billion (2010 est.)
$2.814 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - Partners:

 China 61%, Russia 17.2%, Kazakhstan 5.7% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $1.72 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.585 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $3.738 billion (30 June 2010)
$3.467 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $NA (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert to Any Currency

Soms (KGS) per US dollar -
46.337 (2010)
42.905 (2009)
36.108 (2008)
37.746 (2007)
40.149 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 502,200 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 4.9 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links

Domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeded 80 per 100 persons in 2009

International: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line

Broadcast Media:

 State-run television broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations operating (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 3 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 23, shortwave 2 (2009)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 8 (2 countrywide and 6 regional stations; state-owned); note - there are about 20 private TV stations, most of which rebroadcast other channels (2007)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 97,976 (2010)

Internet Users:

 2.195 million (2009)

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 28 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 18
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
Under 914 m: 3 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 8 (2010)


 Gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2010)


 Total: 470 km
Broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 34,000 km (2007)


 600 km (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)

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Military Branches:

 Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces), National Guard (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-27 years of age for compulsory male military service in the armed forces or Interior Ministry; service obligation - 1 year, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the callup mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,456,881
Females age 16-49: 1,470,317 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,119,224
Females age 16-49: 1,257,263 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 56,606
Female: 54,056 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 0.5% of GDP (2009)

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Disputes - International:

 Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Illicit Drugs:

 Limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates

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Last Updated: December 2011

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