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Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 drove many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national... See More



 Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in eastern-most Europe

Geographic Coordinates:

 48 00 N, 68 00 E


 Total: 2,724,900 sq km
Land: 2,699,700 sq km
Water: 25,200 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 12,185 km
Border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,224 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km


 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km) (Rank: 219)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 Continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid


 Vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
Highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

Natural Resources:

 Major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

Land Use:

 Arable land: 8.28%
Permanent crops: 0.05%
Other: 91.67% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 35,560 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 109.6 cu km (1997)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 35 cu km/yr (2%/17%/82%)
Per capita: 2,360 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty

Environment - Current Issues:

 Radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050

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 Noun: Kazakhstani(s)
Adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic Groups:

 Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.5% (2009 census)


 Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)


 Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%


 15,522,373 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 21.6% (male 1,709,929/female 1,637,132)
15-64 years: 71% (male 5,373,755/female 5,654,461)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 392,689/female 754,407) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 30.2 years
Male: 28.7 years
Female: 31.9 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.4% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 16.65 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 9.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 59% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 Almaty 1.383 million; ASTANA (capital) 650,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.058 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 45 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 24.15 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 28.44 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 19.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 68.51 years
Male: 63.24 years
Female: 74.08 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.87 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 4.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 3.877 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital Bed Density:

 7.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 99% of population
Rural: 90% of population
Total: 95% of population
Urban: 1% of population
Rural: 10% of population
Total: 5% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 97% of population
Rural: 98% of population
Total: 97% of population
Urban: 3% of population
Rural: 2% of population
Total: 3% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 13,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 4.9% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 2.8% of GDP (2007)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.5%
Male: 99.8%
Female: 99.3% (1999 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2010)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 6.7%
Male: 6.8%
Female: 8.2% (2008)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form: Kazakhstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: Qazaqstan
Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Government Type:

 Republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch


 Name: Astana
Geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
Time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Note: Kazakhstan is divided into two time zones

Administrative Divisions:

 14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Almaty Oblysy, Almaty Qalasy*, Aqmola Oblysy (Astana), Aqtobe Oblysy, Astana Qalasy*, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Bayqongyr Qalasy [Baykonur]*, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavlovsk), Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)

Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050


 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 16 December (1991)


 First post-independence constitution adopted 28 January 1993; new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995

Legal System:

 Civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)

Head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 10 January 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister Umirzak SHUKEYEV (since 3 March 2009), Deputy Prime Ministers Yerbol ORYNBAYEV (since 29 October 2007), Aset ISEKESHEV (since 12 March 2010)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held December 2016); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, with Mazhilis approval; note - constitutional amendments of May 2007 shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years and established a two-consecutive-term limit; changes will take effect after NAZARBAYEV's term ends; he, and only he, is allowed to run for president indefinitely

Note: constitutional amendments of January 2011 moved election date from 2012 to April 2011 but kept five-year term; subsequent election to take place December 2016

Election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 95.5%, other 4.5%

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 15 members are appointed by the president; 32 members elected by local assemblies; members serve six-year terms, but elections are staggered with half of the members up for re-election every three years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 9 out of the 107 Mazhilis members elected by the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, a presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities; non-appointed members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)

Elections: Senate - (indirect) last held in October 2008 (next to be held in 2011); Mazhilis - last held on 18 August 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur-Otan 88.1%, NSDP 4.6%, Ak Zhol 3.3%, Auyl 1.6%, Communist People's Party 1.3%, Patriots Party 0.8% Ruhaniyat 0.4%; seats by party - Nur-Otan 98; note - parties had to achieve a threshold of 7% of the electorate to qualify for seats in the Mazhilis; changes to electoral legislation enacted since the 2007 election now ensure that the second-placed party will enter the Majilis at the next parliamentary election, even if it does not clear the 7% threshold

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (seven members)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, Serik ABDRAHMANOV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, Tolegan SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan); Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAYMENOV]; Alga [Vladimir KOZLOV] (unregistered); Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]; Azat (Freedom) Party [Bolat ABILOV] (formerly True Ak Zhol Party); Azat NSDP [co-chaired by Bolat ABILOV and Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Azat and NSDP united in 2009, but the authorities have refused to register Azat NSDP as a single party; Communist Party of Kazakhstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN]; Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Serikzhan MAMBETALIN]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS (jailed), Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Yerlan IDRISSOV
Chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Richard E. HOAGLAND
Embassy: Ak Bulak 4, Str. 23-22, Building #3, Astana 010010
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
FAX: [7] (7172) 34-08-90

Flag Description:

 A gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future

National Symbols:

 Golden eagle

National Anthem:

 Name: "Menin Qazaqstanim" (My Kazakhstan)
Lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV

Note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics

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Economy - Overview:

 Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating, and from 2000 through 2007, Kazakhstan's economy grew more than 9% per year. Extractive industries, particularly hydrocarbons and mining, have been the engines of this growth. However, geographic limitations and decaying infrastructure present serious obstacles. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbors to export its products, especially oil and gas. Although its Caspian Sea ports and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation has been neglected. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan's economy, it has rebounded well. In response to the crisis, Kazakhstan's government devalued the tenge (Kazakhstan's currency) to stabilize market pressures and injected $19 billion in economic stimulus. Rising commodity prices have helped revive Kazakhstan's economy, which registered 7% growth in 2010. Barring a dramatic decline in oil prices, strong growth is expected to continue in 2011. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called "Dutch disease." In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $196.4 billion (2010 est.)
$183.6 billion (2009 est.)
$181.4 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $138.4 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 7% (2010 est.)
1.2% (2009 est.)
3.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $12,700 (2010 est.)
$11,900 (2009 est.)
$11,800 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 5.4%
Industry: 42.8%
Services: 51.8% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 8.611 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 28.2%
Industry: 18.2%
Services: 53.6% (2010)

Unemployment Rate:

 5.8% (2010 est.)
6.6% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 8.2% (2009)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.8%
Highest 10%: 25.2% (2007 est.)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 26.7 (2009)
31.5 (2003)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 3,700 (Russia); 508 (Afghanistan) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 25.2% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $29.18 billion
Expenditures: $32.77 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 21.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -2.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 15.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
13.5% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 7.1% (2010 est.)
7.3% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
7% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 8.161% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.757% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $16.12 billion (31 December 2008)
$12.74 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $35.76 billion (31 December 2008)
$25.75 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $21.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$16.58 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $66.23 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$52.58 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $67.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$62.65 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $60.74 billion (31 December 2010)
$57.66 billion (31 December 2009)
$31.08 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock


 Oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 10% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 75.61 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 84.3%
Hydro: 15.7%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 77.9 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 2.483 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 1.94 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 1.61 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 249,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 1.501 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 172,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 30 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 35.61 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 8.572 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 9.9 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 6.1 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $4.319 billion (2010 est.)
-$4.221 billion (2009 est.)


 $60.84 billion (2010 est.)
$43.93 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Oil and oil products 59%, ferrous metals 19%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal

Exports - Partners:

 China 20.2%, Germany 9.1%, Russia 8.5%, France 7.1%, Turkey 4.5%, Canada 4.5%, Italy 4.1% (2010)


 $31.96 billion (2010 est.)
$28.96 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs

Imports - Partners:

 Russia 34.3%, China 27.7%, Germany 5.2%, Ukraine 4% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $28.27 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$23.22 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $124.1 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
$95.91 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $13.76 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.958 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $79.13 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$69.17 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Kazakhstan Tenge to Any Currency

Tenge (KZT) per US dollar -
147.28 (2010)
147.5 (2009)
120.25 (2008)
122.55 (2007)
126.09 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 4.011 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 19.768 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization

Domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity now roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing and the subscriber base now is roughly 100 per 100 persons

International: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2008)

Broadcast Media:

 State owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; nearly all nationwide TV networks are wholly or partly owned by the government; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized and are controlled by the president's daughter, who heads the Khabar Agency that runs multiple TV and radio stations; a number of privately-owned TV stations; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operating along with state-run radio stations (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 60, FM 18, shortwave 9 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 12 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 53,984 (2010)

Internet Users:

 5.299 million (2009)

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 97 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 65
Over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 8 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 32
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 13 (2010)


 3 (2010)


 Condensate 658 km; gas 12,317 km; oil 11,201 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2010)


 Total: 15,079 km
Broad gauge: 15,079 km 1.520-m gauge (4,000 km electrified) (2010)


 Total: 93,612 km
Paved: 84,100 km
Unpaved: 9,512 km (2008)


 4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 8
By type: petroleum tanker 6, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
Foreign-owned: 1 (Ireland 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

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Military Branches:

 Kazakhstan Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Mobile Forces, Air Defense Forces (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; minimum age for volunteers NA (2004)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 4,163,629
Females age 16-49: 4,179,051 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 2,909,999
Females age 16-49: 3,528,169 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 125,322
Female: 119,541 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.1% of GDP (2010)

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Disputes - International:

 Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway with Russia in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the lake

Illicit Drugs:

 Significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates

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Last Updated: December 2011

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