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 Interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger

Geographic Coordinates:

 17 00 N, 4 00 W


 Total: 1,240,192 sq km
Land: 1,220,190 sq km
Water: 20,002 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 7,243 km
Border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km


 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 228)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 Subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)


 Mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
Highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural Resources:

 Gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower

Note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land Use:

 Arable land: 3.76%
Permanent crops: 0.03%
Other: 96.21% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 2,360 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 100 cu km (2001)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
Per capita: 484 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding

Environment - Current Issues:

 Deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan

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 Noun: Malian(s)
Adjective: Malian

Ethnic Groups:

 Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%


 French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages


 Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%


 14,159,904 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 47.3% (male 3,372,717/female 3,325,188)
15-64 years: 49.7% (male 3,438,687/female 3,605,143)
65 years and over: 3% (male 199,862/female 218,307) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 16.3 years
Male: 15.9 years
Female: 16.7 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 2.61% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 45.62 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 14.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -5.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 36% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 BAMAKO (capital) 1.628 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 830 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 111.35 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 118.15 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 104.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 52.61 years
Male: 51.01 years
Female: 54.26 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 6.44 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 7.5% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.049 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 0.57 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 81% of population
Rural: 44% of population
Total: 56% of population
Urban: 19% of population
Rural: 56% of population
Total: 44% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 54% of population
Rural: 32% of population
Total: 36% of population
Urban: 46% of population
Rural: 68% of population
Total: 54% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 76,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 4,400 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 27.9% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 4.4% of GDP (2009)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 46.4%
Male: 53.5%
Female: 39.6% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 8 years
Male: 9 years
Female: 7 years (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Mali
Conventional short form: Mali
Local long form: Republique de Mali
Local short form: Mali
Former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Government Type:



 Name: Bamako
Geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou


 22 September 1960 (from France)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 22 September (1960)


 Adopted 12 January 1992

Legal System:

 Civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)

Head of government: Prime Minister CISSE Mariam Kaidama Sidibe (since 3 April 2011)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political Parties and Leaders:

 African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Other: the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou TRAORE
Chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
Embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
Mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
Telephone: [223] 270-2300
FAX: [223] 270-2479

Flag Description:

 Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red

Note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National Anthem:

 Name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
Lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

Note: adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)

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Economy - Overview:

 Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government has continued an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify its revenue sources because gold production has started to fall. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2010. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire. However, Mali is building a road network that will connect it to all adjacent countries and it has a railway line to Senegal. In 2010, Mali experienced a regional drought that hurt livestock and livelihoods.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $16.77 billion (2010 est.)
$16.06 billion (2009 est.)
$15.37 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $9.268 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 4.5% (2010 est.)
4.5% (2009 est.)
5% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $1,200 (2010 est.)
$1,200 (2009 est.)
$1,200 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 38.9%
Industry: 21.5%
Services: 39.6% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 3.241 million (2007 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 80%
Industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 30% (2004 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 36.1% (2005 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.7%
Highest 10%: 30.5% (2006)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 40.1 (2001)
50.5 (1994)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 6,300 (Mauritania) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 25.4% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $1.898 billion
Expenditures: $2.143 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 20.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -2.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 30.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.1% (2010 est.)
2.2% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 16% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 9.2% (31 December 2010 est.)
9.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $1.559 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.58 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $561 million (31 December 2008)
$697.1 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $1.783 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.758 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $2.522 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.514 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $1.181 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$994.9 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats


 Food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial Production Growth Rate:


Electricity - Production:

 490 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 41.7%
Hydro: 58.3%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 455.7 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh

Note: Mali may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 6,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 4,507 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$704.6 million (2010 est.)
-$645.4 million (2009 est.)


 $2.071 billion (2010 est.)
$1.889 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Cotton, gold, livestock

Exports - Partners:

 China 27.2%, Indonesia 8.2%, Thailand 5.3%, Burkina Faso 5.2%, Morocco 5%, South Korea 4.9% (2010)


 $2.38 billion (2010 est.)
$2.082 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - Partners:

 Senegal 13.6%, France 11%, Cote dIvoire 10%, China 6.8%, South Korea 5.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $1.292 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.605 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $3.024 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.667 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert CFA Franc (BCEAO) to Any Currency

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
493.51 (2007)
522.59 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 114,400 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 7.326 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas

Domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to nearly 30 per 100 persons

International: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)

Broadcast Media:

 National public TV broadcaster; 2 privately-owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately-owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 2 (plus repeaters) (2007)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 524 (2010)

Internet Users:

 249,800 (2009)

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 20 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 3 (2010)


 Total: 593 km
Narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 18,912 km
Paved: 3,597 km
Unpaved: 15,315 km (2005)


 1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:


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Military Branches:

 Malian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2008)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 2,848,412
Females age 16-49: 2,981,106 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,825,779
Females age 16-49: 1,968,563 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 158,031
Female: 159,733 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.9% of GDP (2006)

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Disputes - International:

 Demarcation is currently underway with Burkina Faso

Trafficking in Persons:

 Current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; within Mali, women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal commercial sector, as well as forced begging both within Mali and neighboring countries; boys from Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, and other countries are forced into begging and exploited for labor; adult men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related practices rooted in hereditary master-slave relationships, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their children

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the government acknowledged that human trafficking is a problem in Mali, but it did not demonstrate significant efforts to prosecute and convict trafficking offenders; although the government identified at least 198 trafficking victims during the year - 152 of whom were Malian children in prostitution - it prosecuted only three trafficking cases and convicted two trafficking offenders (2011)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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