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Poland is an ancient nation that was conceived near the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred in the 16th century. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s... See More



 Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic Coordinates:

 52 00 N, 20 00 E


 Total: 312,685 sq km
Land: 304,255 sq km
Water: 8,430 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 3,047 km
Border countries: Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 615 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Slovakia 420 km, Ukraine 428 km


 440 km (Rank: 114)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties


 Temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers


 Mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
Highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

Natural Resources:

 Coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land

Land Use:

 Arable land: 40.25%
Permanent crops: 1%
Other: 58.75% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 1,160 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 63.1 cu km (2005)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 11.73 cu km/yr (13%/79%/8%)
Per capita: 304 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural Hazards:


Environment - Current Issues:

 Situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to EU code, but at substantial cost to business and the government

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - Note:

 Historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

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 Noun: Pole(s)
Adjective: Polish

Ethnic Groups:

 Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belarusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 2.7% (2002 census)


 Polish (official) 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)


 Roman Catholic 89.8% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other 0.3%, unspecified 8.3% (2002)


 38,441,588 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 2,910,324/female 2,748,546)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 13,698,363/female 13,834,779)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,004,550/female 3,245,026) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 38.5 years
Male: 36.8 years
Female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.062% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 10.01 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 10.17 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 WARSAW (capital) 1.71 million; Krakow 756,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.061 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 6.54 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 7.25 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 76.05 years
Male: 72.1 years
Female: 80.25 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.3 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 7.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 2.144 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 6.62 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 96% of population
Rural: 80% of population
Total: 90% of population
Urban: 4% of population
Rural: 20% of population
Total: 10% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.1%; 0.1% note - no country specific models provided (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 27,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 200 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis

Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds(2009)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 18% (2001)

Education Expenditures:

 4.9% of GDP (2007)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.8%
Male: 99.8%
Female: 99.7% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2008)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 20.7%
Male: 20.2%
Female: 21.2% (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Poland
Conventional short form: Poland
Local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
Local short form: Polska

Government Type:



 Name: Warsaw
Geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie, Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie, Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)


 11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: A.D. 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)

National Holiday:

 Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)


 Adopted by the National Assembly 2 April 1997; passed by national referendum 25 May 1997; effective 17 October 1997

Legal System:

 Civil law system; changes gradually being introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts, but rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (since 6 August 2010)

Head of government: Prime Minister Donald TUSK (since 16 November 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Waldemar PAWLAK (since 16 November 2007)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 June and 4 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm

Election results: Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI elected president; percent of popular vote - Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI 53%, Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI 47%

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral legislature consists of an upper house, the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms), and a lower house, the Sejm (460 seats; members elected under a complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); the designation of National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly

Elections: Senate - last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held by October 2015); Sejm - last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held by October 2015)

Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PO 63, PiS 31, PSL 2, independents 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PO 39.2%, PiS 29.9%, RD 10%, PSL 8.4%, SLD 8.2%, other 4.3%; seats by party - PO 207, PiS 157, RD 40, PSL 28, SLD 27, German minorities 1

Note: an electoral committee of a national minority is exempt from the threshold requirement

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period); Constitutional Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK, chairman; Rfal GRUPINSKI, parliamentary caucus leader]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Leszek MILLER, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]; Democratic Party or PD [Brygida KUZNIAK, chairwoman]; Democratic Party or SD [Pawel PISKORSKI, chairman]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]; Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Mariusz BLASZCZAK, parliamentary caucus leader]; League of Polish Families or LPR [Witold BALAZAK, chairman]; Palikot's Movement or RP [Janusz PALIKOT, chairman]; Poland Comes First or PJN [Pawel KOWEL, chairperson]; Polish People's Party or PSL [Waldemar PAWLAK, chairman; Jan BURY, parliamentary caucus leader]; Social Democratic Party of Poland or SDPL [Wojciech FILEMONOWICZ, chairman]; Union of Labor or UP [Waldemar WITKOWSKI, chairman]; United Poland or SP (political grouping of former PiS members, not officially registered) [Arkadiusz MULARCZYK chairperson; Patryk JAKI, parliamentary caucus leader]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]; Solidarity Trade Union [Piotr DUDA]

International Organization Participation:

 Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Robert KUPIECKI
Chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Lee FEINSTEIN
Embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
Mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
Telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
Consulate(s) general: Krakow

Flag Description:

 Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field

Note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

National Symbols:

 White eagle

National Anthem:

 Name: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
Lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional

Note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied

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Economy - Overview:

 Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization since 1990 and today stands out as a success story among transition economies. It is the only country in the European Union to maintain positive GDP growth through the 2008-2009 economic downturn. GDP per capita is still much below the EU average, but is similar to that of the three Baltic states. Since 2004, EU membership and access to EU structural funds have provided a major boost to the economy. Unemployment fell rapidly to 6.4% in October 2008, but climbed back to 11.8% for the year 2010, exceeding the EU average by more than 2%. Inflation reached a low of about 2.6% in 2010 due to the global economic slowdown but has since climbed and is expected to remain around 3%, and close to the upper limit of the National Bank of Poland's target rate. Poland's economic performance could improve over the longer term if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure and its business environment. An inefficient commercial court system, a rigid labor code, bureaucratic red tape, burdensome tax system, and persistent low-level corruption keep the private sector from performing up to its full potential. Rising demands to fund health care, education, and the state pension system caused the public sector budget deficit to rise to 7.9% of GDP in 2010. The PO/PSL coalition government, which came to power in November 2007, has planned to reduce the budget deficit in 2011 and has also announced its intention to enact business-friendly reforms, increase workforce participation, reduce public sector spending growth, lower taxes, and accelerate privatization. The government has moved slowly on most major reforms, but has sped up privatization.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $721.3 billion (2010 est.)
$694.8 billion (2009 est.)
$683.5 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $468.5 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 3.8% (2010 est.)
1.7% (2009 est.)
5.1% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $18,800 (2010 est.)
$18,100 (2009 est.)
$17,800 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 3.4%
Industry: 33%
Services: 63.5% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 17.66 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 17.4%
Industry: 29.2%
Services: 53.4% (2005)

Unemployment Rate:

 12.1% (2010 est.)
11% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 17% (2003 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.2%
Highest 10%: 27.2% (2008)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 34.2 (2008)
31.6 (1998)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 20.8% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $82.96 billion
Expenditures: $97.74 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 17.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -3.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 52.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
49.3% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 2.6% (2010 est.)
3.5% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 4% (31 December 2010 est.)
3.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 8.367% (31 December 2010 est.)
8.513% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $118.2 billion (31 December 2008)
$137.4 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $109 billion (31 December 2008)
$93.98 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $151.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$136.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $261.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$250.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $303.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$289.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $190.2 billion (31 December 2010)
$135.3 billion (31 December 2009)
$90.23 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy


 Machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 11.1% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 141.8 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 98.1%
Hydro: 1.5%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0.4% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 132.2 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 9.594 billion kWh (2009)

Electricity - Imports:

 2.191 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 28,230 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 564,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 50,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 531,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 96.38 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 6.084 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 17.2 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 47 million cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 10.89 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 164.8 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$15.9 billion (2010 est.)
-$17.16 billion (2009 est.)


 $162.3 billion (2010 est.)
$142.1 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6%

Exports - Partners:

 Germany 26.9%, France 7.1%, UK 6.4%, Italy 6.3%, Czech Republic 6.2%, Netherlands 4.3%, Russia 4.1% (2010)


 $173.7 billion (2010 est.)
$149.7 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9%

Imports - Partners:

 Germany 29.1%, Russia 8.8%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5.8%, China 5.6%, France 4.5%, Czech Republic 4.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $93.49 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$79.58 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $365.4 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
$272.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $36.84 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$29.61 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $193.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$186.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Polish Zloty to Any Currency

Zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
3.0718 (2010)
3.1214 (2009)
2.3 (2008)
2.81 (2007)
3.1032 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 9.451 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 46 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services

Domestic: mobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nation-wide networks with a fourth provider beginning operations in late 2006; coverage is generally good with some gaps in the east; fixed-line service lags in rural areas

International: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 State-run public television operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately-owned entities operate several national TV broadcast networks and a number of special interest channels; large number of privately-owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately-owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and a large number of privately-owned local radio stations (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 14, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 75 (2008)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 10.51 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 22.452 million (2009)

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 129 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 86
Over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 6 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 43
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 21 (2010)


 7 (2010)


 Gas 13,860 km; oil 1,384 km; refined products 777 km; unknown 35 km (2010)


 Total: 19,428 km
Broad gauge: 399 km 1.524-m gauge
Standard gauge: 19,029 km 1.435-m gauge (11,805 km electrified) (2010)


 Total: 423,997 km
Paved: 295,356 km (includes 765 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 128,641 km (2008)


 3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 10
By type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 1
Registered in other countries: 104 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 32, Cyprus 20, Liberia 13, Malta 22, Norway 2, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 2, Vanuatu 7) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie, Szczecin

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Military Branches:

 Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Aviation Forces, Special Forces (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-28 years of age for male voluntary or compulsory military service; conscription suspended in 2009; reserve obligation to age 50 (2009)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 9,531,855
Females age 16-49: 9,298,593 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 7,817,556
Females age 16-49: 7,766,361 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 221,889
Female: 211,172 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.9% of GDP (2010 est.)

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Disputes - International:

 As a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine

Illicit Drugs:

 Despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe

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Last Updated: December 2011

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