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 Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic Coordinates:

 39 30 N, 8 00 W


 Total: 92,090 sq km
Land: 91,470 sq km
Water: 620 sq km

Note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Indiana

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 1,214 km
Border countries: Spain 1,214 km


 1,793 km (Rank: 62)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


 Maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


 Mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural Resources:

 Fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land Use:

 Arable land: 17.29%
Permanent crops: 7.84%
Other: 74.87% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 5,840 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 73.6 cu km (2005)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 11.09 cu km/yr (10%/12%/78%)
Per capita: 1,056 cu m/yr (1998)

Natural Hazards:

 Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Volcanism: Portugal experiences limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - Current Issues:

 Soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - Note:

 Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

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 Noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic Groups:

 Homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal


 Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


 Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)


 10,760,305 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 16.2% (male 910,012/female 835,025)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 3,539,457/female 3,541,989)
65 years and over: 18% (male 791,950/female 1,141,872) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 40 years
Male: 38 years
Female: 42.3 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.212% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 9.94 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 10.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 2.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 LISBON (capital) 2.808 million; Porto 1.344 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.067 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 4.66 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 5.11 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 78.54 years
Male: 75.28 years
Female: 82.01 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.5 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 11.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 3.755 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital Bed Density:

 3.37 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 99% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 99% of population
Urban: 1% of population
Rural: 0% of population
Total: 1% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.6% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 42,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 14.2% (2005)

Education Expenditures:

 4.4% of GDP (2008)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 93.3%
Male: 95.5%
Female: 91.3% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 16 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 16 years (2008)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 20%
Male: 18.6%
Female: 21.6% (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
Conventional short form: Portugal
Local long form: Republica Portuguesa
Local short form: Portugal

Government Type:

 Republic; parliamentary democracy


 Name: Lisbon
Geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu


 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National Holiday:

 Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died


 Adopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised

Note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media

Legal System:

 Civil law system; Constitutional Tribunal review of legislative acts

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)

Head of government: Prime Minister Pedro Manuel Mamede PASSOS COELHO (since 21 June 2011)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

Note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

Election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA reelected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 53%, Manuel ALEGRE 19.8%, Fernando NOBRE 14.1%, Francisco LOPES 7.1%, Manuel COELHO 4.5%, Defensor MOURA 1.6%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held in 2015)

Election results: percent of vote by party - PPD/PSD 38%, PS 28%, CDS/PP 11%, PCP/PEV 7%, BE 5%; seats by party - PPD/PSD 108, PS 74, CDS/PP 24, PCP/PEV 16, BE 8

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal de Justica); judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pedro Manuel PASSOS COELHO]; Socialist Party or PS [Antonio de Almeida SANTOS]; The Left Bloc or BE; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 The media; labor unions

International Organization Participation:

 ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Nuno Filipe Alves Salvador e BRITO
Chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
Consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco
Consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Allan J. KATZ
Embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
Mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
Telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
Consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag Description:

 Two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National Symbols:

 Armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky)

National Anthem:

 Name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
Lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

Note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

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Economy - Overview:

 Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy had grown by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-08, and contracted 2.6% in 2009, before growing 1% in 2010. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system and a rigid labor market have been obstacles to greater productivity and growth. Portugal also has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a destination for foreign direct investment. Portugal's low competitiveness, low growth prospects, and high levels of public debt have made it vulnerable to bond market turbulence. The government is implementing austerity measures, including a 5% public salary cut which went into effect on January 1, 2011 and a 2% increase in the value-added tax, to reduce the budget deficit from 9.3% of GDP in 2009 to 4.6% in 2011, but some investors have expressed concern about the government's ability to achieve these targets and cover its sovereign debt. Without the option for stimulus measures, the government is focusing instead on boosting exports and implementing labor market reforms to try to raise GDP growth and increase Portugal's competitiveness - which, over time, may help mitigate investor concerns.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $247 billion (2010 est.)
$243.6 billion (2009 est.)
$249.8 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $229.3 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 1.4% (2010 est.)
-2.5% (2009 est.)
0% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $23,000 (2010 est.)
$22,800 (2009 est.)
$23,400 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 2.5%
Industry: 22.9%
Services: 74.7% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 5.581 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 11.7%
Industry: 28.5%
Services: 59.8% (2009 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 10.8% (2010 est.)
9.5% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 18% (2006)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.1%
Highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 38.5 (2007)
35.6 (1995)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 19% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $95.4 billion
Expenditures: $116.5 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 41.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -9.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 93% of GDP (2010 est.)
83% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.4% (2010 est.)
-0.8% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 1.75% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)

Note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 4.225% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.694% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:


Note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $95.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$103.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of Broad Money:

 $319.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$311 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $556.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$490.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $82 billion (31 December 2010)
$98.65 billion (31 December 2009)
$68.71 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish


 Textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, dairy products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 1.6% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 46.53 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 64.5%
Hydro: 31.3%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 4.1% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 48.27 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 2.822 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 4.776 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 4,721 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 277,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 49,650 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 294,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 5.161 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 5.122 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$22.61 billion (2010 est.)
-$25.6 billion (2009 est.)


 $48.91 billion (2010 est.)
$44.67 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools

Exports - Partners:

 Spain 26.8%, Germany 13.1%, France 11.9%, UK 5.5%, Angola 5.2% (2010)


 $72.67 billion (2010 est.)
$69.5 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices

Imports - Partners:

 Spain 31.3%, Germany 13.8%, France 7.3%, Italy 5.7%, Netherlands 5.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $21 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$16.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $548.3 billion (30 June 2011)
$497.8 billion (30 June 2010)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $64.25 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$68.47 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $110.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$114.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7198 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 4.485 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 15.195 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

Domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

International: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2008)

Broadcast Media:

 The publicly-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly-owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately-owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 2, FM 63, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 42 (2008)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 3.267 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 5.168 million (2009)

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 65 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 43
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 13
Under 914 m: 10 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 21 (2010)


 Gas 1,307 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2010)


 Total: 3,319 km
Broad gauge: 2,700 km 1.668-m gauge (1,436 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 192 km 1.000-m gauge; 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 82,900 km
Paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)


 210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 111
By type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 33, carrier 1, chemical tanker 17, container 8, liquefied gas 9, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
Foreign-owned: 80 (Belgium 8, Denmark 4, Germany 13, Greece 5, Italy 10, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Spain 15, Sweden 6, Switzerland 3, US 4)
Registered in other countries: 14 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 9) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

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Military Branches:

 Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2010)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 2,566,264
Females age 16-49: 2,458,297 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 2,103,080
Females age 16-49: 2,018,004 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 62,208
Female: 54,786 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 2.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

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Disputes - International:

 Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Illicit Drugs:

 Seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

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Last Updated: December 2011

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