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GEOGRAPHY


Location:

 Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic Coordinates:

 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Area:

 Total: 450,295 sq km
Land: 410,335 sq km
Water: 39,960 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly larger than California

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 2,233 km
Border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline:

 3,218 km (Rank: 37)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
Exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:

 Temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain:

 Mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
Highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural Resources:

 Iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Land Use:

 Arable land: 5.93%
Permanent crops: 0.01%
Other: 94.06% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 1,600 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 179 cu km (2005)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 2.68 cu km/yr (37%/54%/9%)
Per capita: 296 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural Hazards:

 Ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - Current Issues:

 Acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

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PEOPLE AND SOCIETY


Nationality:

 Noun: Swede(s)
Adjective: Swedish

Ethnic Groups:

 Indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Languages:

 Swedish (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Religions:

 Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%

Population:

 9,088,728 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 722,558/female 680,933)
15-64 years: 64.8% (male 2,982,268/female 2,910,135)
65 years and over: 19.7% (male 800,169/female 992,665) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 42 years
Male: 40.8 years
Female: 43.1 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.163% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 10.18 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 10.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization:

 Urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.279 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.061 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 2.74 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 81.07 years
Male: 78.78 years
Female: 83.51 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.67 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 9.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 3.583 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 8,100 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 12% (2009)

Education Expenditures:

 6.6% of GDP (2007)

Literacy:

 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 16 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2008)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 25%
Male: 26.3%
Female: 23.7% (2009)

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GOVERNMENT


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
Conventional short form: Sweden
Local long form: Konungariket Sverige
Local short form: Sverige

Government Type:

 Constitutional monarchy

Capital:

 Name: Stockholm
Geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland

Independence:

 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National Holiday:

 Swedish Flag Day, 6 June (1916); National Day, 6 June (1983)

Constitution:

 January 1, 1975

Legal System:

 Civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

Head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Jan BJORKLUND (since 5 October 2010)

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 19 September 2010 (next to be held in September 2014)

Election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 30.7%, Moderates 30.1%, Greens 7.3%, Liberal People's Party 7.1%, Center Party 6.6%, Sweden Democrats 5.7%, Christian Democrats 5.6%, Left Party 5.6%, others 1.3%; seats by party - Social Democrats 112, Moderates 107, Greens 25, Liberal People's Party 24, Center Party 23, Sweden Democrats 20, Christian Democrats 19, Left Party 19

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN]; Sweden Democrats [Jimmie AKESSON]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Children's Rights in Society; Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO; Swedish Federation of Trade Unions or LO
Other: media

International Organization Participation:

 ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Jonas HAFSTROM
Chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
Telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew W. BARZUN
Embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
Mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
Telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64

Flag Description:

 Blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field

National Symbols:

 Three crowns; lion

National Anthem:

 Name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
Lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

Note: in use since 1844; the anthem, also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

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ECONOMY


Economy - Overview:

 Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for little more than 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of a sustained economic upswing, boosted by increased domestic demand and strong exports. This and robust finances offered the center-right government considerable scope to implement its reform program aimed at increasing employment, reducing welfare dependence, and streamlining the state's role in the economy. Despite strong finances and underlying fundamentals, the Swedish economy slid into recession in the third quarter of 2008 and growth continued downward in 2009 as deteriorating global conditions reduced export demand and consumption. Strong exports of commodities and a return to profitability by Sweden's banking sector drove the strong rebound in 2010.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $354.7 billion (2010 est.)
$336.1 billion (2009 est.)
$355.1 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $455.8 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 5.5% (2010 est.)
-5.3% (2009 est.)
-0.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $39,100 (2010 est.)
$37,100 (2009 est.)
$39,300 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 1.9%
Industry: 26.6%
Services: 71.5% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 4.961 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 1.1%
Industry: 28.2%
Services: 70.7% (2008 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 8.4% (2010 est.)
8.3% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 NA%

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.6%
Highest 10%: 22.2% (2000)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 23 (2005)
25 (1992)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 17.9% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget:

 Revenues: $241.5 billion
Expenditures: $243.1 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 53% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -0.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 39.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
42.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.3% (2010 est.)
-0.3% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 5.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 3.386% (31 December 2010 est.)
2.38% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $185.4 billion (31 December 2008)
$217.1 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $54.55 billion (31 December 2008)
$48.49 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $235.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$207.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $298.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$267.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $705.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$625.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $581.2 billion (31 December 2010)
$432.3 billion (31 December 2009)
$252.5 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk

Industries:

 Iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 8.7% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 129.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 4%
Hydro: 50.8%
Nuclear: 43%
Other: 2.3% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 132.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 9.085 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 4.686 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 4,833 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 351,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 243,200 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 546,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 1.626 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 1.626 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $28.74 billion (2010 est.)
$29.03 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

 $160.4 billion (2010 est.)
$134.2 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - Partners:

 Germany 10.5%, Norway 9.8%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 6.9%, Finland 6.5%, US 6.4%, Netherlands 5.2%, France 5.2%, Belgium 4.3% (2010)

Imports:

 $149.5 billion (2010 est.)
$121.2 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - Partners:

 Germany 18.3%, Norway 8.5%, Denmark 8.3%, Netherlands 6.2%, UK 5.7%, Finland 5.4%, China 4.9%, Russia 4.9%, France 4.7% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $48.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$47.29 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $1.016 trillion (30 June 2011)
$853.3 billion (30 June 2010)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $336.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$347.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $348.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$332.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Swedish Krona to Any Currency

Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
7.5077 (2010)
7.6529 (2009)
6.4074 (2008)
6.7629 (2007)
7.3731 (2006)

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COMMUNICATIONS


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 5.014 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 10.65 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration

Domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

International: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Broadcast Media:

 Publicly-owned television broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately-owned television broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV systems; publicly-owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; nearly a hundred privately-owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 1, FM 124, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 252 (2008)

Internet Country Code:

 .se

Internet Hosts:

 4.396 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 8.398 million (2009)

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TRANSPORTATION


Airports:

 249 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 152
Over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 25
Under 914 m: 36 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 92 (2010)

Heliports:

 2 (2010)

Pipelines:

 Gas 786 km (2010)

Railways:

 Total: 11,633 km
Standard gauge: 11,568 km 1.435-m gauge (7,567 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 65 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2010)

Roadways:

 Total: 572,900 km (includes 1,855 km of expressways)

Note: (includes 98,400 km of state roads, 433,500 km of private roads, and 41,000 km of municipal roads; 215,700 km of these are open to public traffic) (2009)

Waterways:

 2,052 km (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 163
By type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 20, carrier 1, chemical tanker 31, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 37, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 32, vehicle carrier 21
Foreign-owned: 46 (Denmark 15, Estonia 3, Finland 16, Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 5, Norway 3)
Registered in other countries: 194 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 6, Barbados 6, Bermuda 17, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 16, Faroe Islands 5, France 6, Germany 1, Gibraltar 12, Isle of Man 1, Italy 1, Liberia 10, Malta 3, Netherlands 18, former Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 33, Panama 1, Portugal 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 9, UK 25, US 5, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby

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MILITARY


Military Branches:

 Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2010)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 2,065,691
Females age 16-49: 1,996,764 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,709,055
Females age 16-49: 1,650,432 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 54,960
Female: 52,275 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.5% of GDP (2005 est.)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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