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 Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic Coordinates:

 43 46 N, 12 25 E


 Total: 61 sq km
Land: 61 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 About one third times the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 39 km
Border countries: Italy 39 km


 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 235)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers


 Rugged mountains

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
Highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural Resources:

 Building stone

Land Use:

 Arable land: 16.67%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 83.33% (2005)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

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 Noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic Groups:

 Sammarinese, Italian




 Roman Catholic


 31,817 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 16.6% (male 2,821/female 2,474)
15-64 years: 65.4% (male 10,076/female 10,734)
65 years and over: 18% (male 2,537/female 3,175) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 42.5 years
Male: 41.7 years
Female: 43.2 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 1.043% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 9.02 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 7.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 9.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 94% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.095 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 4.72 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 83.01 years
Male: 80.5 years
Female: 85.74 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.47 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 7.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 47.35 physicians/1,000 population (1990)


 Definition: age 10 and over can read and write
Total population: 96%
Male: 97%
Female: 95%

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
Conventional short form: San Marino
Local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
Local short form: San Marino

Government Type:



 Name: San Marino
Geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle


 3 September 301

National Holiday:

 Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)


 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal System:

 Civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Gabrielle GATTI and Captain Regent Matteo FIORINI (for the period 1 October 2011-1 April 2012)

Head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)

Cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term

Elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2010 (next to be held in March 2011); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)

Election results: Giovanni Francesco UGOLINI and Andrea ZAFFERANI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA

Note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)

Election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2% (PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%), Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8% (Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%); seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35 (PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2), Reforms and Freedom coalition 25 (Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2)

Judicial Branch:

 Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Democrats of the Center or DdC [Giovanni LONFERNINI]; Freedom List (including NPS and We Sammarinesi) or NS [Gabriele GATTEI]; New Socialist Party or NPS [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PDS [Paride ANDREOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Carlo FRANCIOSI]; Union of Moderates (including National Alliance or ANS [Glauco SANSOVINI] and San Marino Populars or POP [Romeo MORRI and Angela VENTURINI]; United Left or SU [Alessandro ROSSI]

International Organization Participation:

 CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
Chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
Telephone: 202-337-2260

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 The US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino

Flag Description:

 Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National Symbols:

 Three peaks each displaying a tower

National Anthem:

 Name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
Lyrics/music: none/Federico CONSOLO

Note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

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Economy - Overview:

 San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries, as well as on the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. San Marino has recently faced increased international pressure to improve cooperation with foreign tax authorities and transparency within its own banking sector, which generates about one-fifth of the country's tax revenues. Italy's implementation in October 2009 of a tax amnesty to repatriate untaxed funds held abroad has resulted in financial outflows from San Marino to Italy worth more than $4.5 billion. Such outflows, combined with a money-laundering scandal at San Marino's largest financial institution and the recent global economic downturn, have contributed to a deep recession and growing budget deficit. Industrial production declined sharply in 2010, especially in the textile sector. However, San Marino has little national debt, and an unemployment rate less than half the size of Italy's. The San Marino government has adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. San Marino also continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully implement global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. The future of the country's economy will be heavily influenced by the signing of a financial information exchange agreement with Italy, which many Italian investors see as fundamental for their business operations with San Marino.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $1.137 billion (2009)
$850 million (2004 est.)

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $1.535 billion (2009)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 -13% (2009 est.)
4.3% (2007 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $36,200 (2009)
$41,900 (2007)

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 0.1%
Industry: 39.2%
Services: 60.7% (2009)

Labor Force:

 22,950 (June 2010)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 0.2%
Industry: 36.3%
Services: 63.5% (June 2010 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 3.8% (November 2010)
3.1% (2008)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%


 Revenues: $882.1 million
Expenditures: $940.4 million (2009)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 57.5% of GDP (2009)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -3.8% of GDP (2009)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 2.8% (June 2010)
-3.5% (2008)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 5.39% (September 2010)
5.74% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $NA (31 December 2008)
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
$8.008 billion (31 December 2009)

Agriculture - Products:

 Wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides


 Tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 -4.9% (2009)


 $2.436 billion (2009)
$4.628 billion (2007)

Exports - Commodities:

 Building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics


 $2.165 billion (2009)
$3.744 billion (2007)

Imports - Commodities:

 Wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7179 (2009)
0.6734 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 21,700 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 24,000 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

Domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 150 telephones per 100 persons

International: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

Broadcast Media:

 State-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 2 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 8,895 (2010)

Internet Users:

 17,000 (2009)

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 Total: 292 km
Paved: 292 km (2006)

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Military Branches:

 No regular military forces; voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 6,892 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 5,565
Females age 16-49: 6,067 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 186
Female: 166 (2010 est.)

Military - Note:

 Defense is the responsibility of Italy

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Last Updated: December 2011

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