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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic... See More



 Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic Coordinates:

 15 00 N, 19 00 E


 Total: 1.284 million sq km
Land: 1,259,200 sq km
Water: 24,800 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly more than three times the size of California

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 5,968 km
Border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km


 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 214)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 Tropical in south, desert in north


 Broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Djourab 160 m
Highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural Resources:

 Petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land Use:

 Arable land: 2.8%
Permanent crops: 0.02%
Other: 97.18% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 300 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 43 cu km (1987)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.23 cu km/yr (17%/0%/83%)
Per capita: 24 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - Current Issues:

 Inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

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 Noun: Chadian(s)
Adjective: Chadian

Ethnic Groups:

 Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)


 French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects


 Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)


 10,758,945 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 46% (male 2,510,656/female 2,441,780)
15-64 years: 51% (male 2,531,896/female 2,960,406)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 131,805/female 182,402) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 16.8 years
Male: 15.6 years
Female: 17.9 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 2.009% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 39.4 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 15.47 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -3.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 28% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 4.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 N'DJAMENA (capital) 808,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 1,200 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 95.31 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 101.18 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 89.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 48.33 years
Male: 47.28 years
Female: 49.43 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 5.05 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital Bed Density:

 0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 67% of population
Rural: 44% of population
Total: 50% of population
Urban: 33% of population
Rural: 56% of population
Total: 50% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 23% of population
Rural: 4% of population
Total: 9% of population
Urban: 77% of population
Rural: 96% of population
Total: 91% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 3.4% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 210,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 11,000 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 33.9% (2004)

Education Expenditures:

 3.2% of GDP (2009)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
Total population: 25.7%
Male: 40.8%
Female: 12.8% (2000 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 7 years
Male: 9 years
Female: 5 years (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Chad
Conventional short form: Chad
Local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
Local short form: Tchad/Tshad

Government Type:



 Name: N'Djamena
Geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira


 11 August 1960 (from France)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 11 August (1960)


 Passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits

Legal System:

 Mixed legal system of civil and customary law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)

Head of government: Prime Minister Emmanuel NADINGAR (since 5 March 2010)

Cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji Madou 7.8%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties

Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court; Constitutional Council; High Court of Justice; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP; Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Rebel groups

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamoud Adam BECHIR
Chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
Embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
Mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
Telephone: [235] 251-62-11, 251-70-09, 251-77-59
FAX: [235] 251-56-54

Flag Description:

 Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice

Note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National Symbols:

 Goat (north); lion (south)

National Anthem:

 Name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
Lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

Note: adopted 1960

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Economy - Overview:

 Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and are currently building a 300-km pipeline and the country's first refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $17.36 billion (2010 est.)
$16.52 billion (2009 est.)
$16.48 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $7.848 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 5.1% (2010 est.)
0.3% (2009 est.)
-0.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $1,600 (2010 est.)
$1,600 (2009 est.)
$1,600 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 52%
Industry: 7%
Services: 41.1% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 4.293 million (2007)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate:


Population Below Poverty Line:

 80% (2001 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 234,000 (Sudan); 54,200 (Central African Republic)
IDPs: 178,918 (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 33.5% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $2.019 billion
Expenditures: $2.928 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 25.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -11.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 -2% (2010 est.)
10% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 14% (31 December 2010 est.)
15% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $934.9 million (31 December 2008)
$874.5 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $63.42 million (31 December 2008)
$55.23 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $1.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$972.5 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.222 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.045 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $710.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$587.8 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels


 Oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 3% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 100 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 100%
Hydro: 0%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 93 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 126,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 2,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 115,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 1,837 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$2.512 billion (2010 est.)
-$2.305 billion (2009 est.)


 $3.16 billion (2010 est.)
$2.709 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic

Exports - Partners:

 US 71.9%, China 16.9%, Netherlands 4.6% (2010)


 $2.94 billion (2010 est.)
$2.539 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - Partners:

 China 29.4%, France 14.3%, Cameroon 12.2%, US 8.1% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $638.6 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$616.7 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $1.743 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$1.743 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $NA (31 December 2010)
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert CFA Franc (BEAC) to Any Currency

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
480.1 (2007)
522.59 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 51,200 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 2.614 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density

Domestic: fixed-line connections for only about 1 per 1000 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 25 per 100 persons

International: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 1 state-owned TV broadcast station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 1 (2001)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 5 (2010)

Internet Users:

 168,100 (2009)

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 56 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 8
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 48
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 21
Under 914 m: 10 (2010)


 Oil 265 km (2010)


 Total: 40,000 km (2006)


 (Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2010)

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Military Branches:

 Armed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2008)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 2,090,244
Females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,183,242
Females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 128,723
Female: 128,244 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.7% of GDP (2009)

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Disputes - International:

 Since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Trafficking in Persons:

 Current situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the majority of children are trafficked within Chad for involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or for commercial sexual exploitation; to a lesser extent, Chadian children are also trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for cattle herding

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Government of Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the Government of Chad reportedly ended all child conscription into its national army and continued to engage in efforts to demobilize remaining child soldiers from rebel forces; fewer efforts were made to address the forced labor of children in cattle herding, domestic service, and begging, or to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of Chadian children; the government did not enact legislation prohibiting trafficking in persons and undertook limited anti-trafficking law enforcement and victim protection activities (2011)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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