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 Eastern Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic Coordinates:

 1 00 N, 32 00 E


 Total: 241,038 sq km
Land: 197,100 sq km
Water: 43,938 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Oregon

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 2,698 km
Border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, South Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km


 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 243)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 Tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast


 Mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
Highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Natural Resources:

 Copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

Land Use:

 Arable land: 21.57%
Permanent crops: 8.92%
Other: 69.51% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 90 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 66 cu km (1970)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.3 cu km/yr (43%/17%/40%)
Per capita: 10 cu m/yr (2002)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - Note:

 Landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

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 Noun: Ugandan(s)
Adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic Groups:

 Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)


 English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic


 Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)


 34,612,250 (July 2011 est.)

Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 49.9% (male 8,692,239/female 8,564,571)
15-64 years: 48.1% (male 8,383,548/female 8,255,473)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 291,602/female 424,817) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 15.1 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 15.1 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 3.576% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 47.49 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 11.71 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 13% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 4.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 KAMPALA (capital) 1.535 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 430 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 62.47 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 66.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 58.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 53.24 years
Male: 52.17 years
Female: 54.33 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 6.69 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 8.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.117 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital Bed Density:

 0.39 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 91% of population
Rural: 64% of population
Total: 67% of population
Urban: 9% of population
Rural: 36% of population
Total: 33% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 38% of population
Rural: 49% of population
Total: 48% of population
Urban: 62% of population
Rural: 51% of population
Total: 52% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 6.5% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 1.2 million (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 64,000 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 16.4% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 3.2% of GDP (2009)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 66.8%
Male: 76.8%
Female: 57.7% (2002 census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
Conventional short form: Uganda

Government Type:



 Name: Kampala
Geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 25 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 80 districts; Abim, Adjumani, Amolatar, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Bukedea, Bukwa, Bulisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Dokolo, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kampala, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kiruhara, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kotido, Kumi, Kyenjojo, Lira, Luwero, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namutumba, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe


 9 October 1962 (from the UK)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 9 October (1962)


 8 October 1995; amended 2005

Note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system

Legal System:

 Mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Amama MBABAZI (since 24 May 2011); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators

Elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

Election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE 26.0%, other 5.6%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly (372 seats; 215 members elected by popular vote, 104 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 79, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 13 ex-officio members; members to serve five-year terms); note - the composition of the National Assembly has changed but the the details are not yet available

Elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 279, FDC 34, DP 11, UPC 9, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 37

Judicial Branch:

 Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups); Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]

Note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]; Young Parliamentary Association [Henry BANYENZAKI]; Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO; National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]; The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Perezi Karukubiro KAMUNANWIRE
Chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Jerry P. LANIER
Embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
Mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
Telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 258-794

Flag Description:

 Six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK

National Symbols:

 Grey crowned crane

National Anthem:

 Name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
Lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

Note: adopted 1962

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Economy - Overview:

 Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Uganda has received about $2 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief. In 2007 Uganda received $10 million for a Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program. The global economic downturn has hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth is still relatively strong due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Instability in southern Sudan is the biggest risk for the Ugandan economy in 2011 because Uganda's main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $42.15 billion (2010 est.)
$40.08 billion (2009 est.)
$37.37 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $17.01 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 5.2% (2010 est.)
7.2% (2009 est.)
8.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $1,300 (2010 est.)
$1,200 (2009 est.)
$1,200 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 22.5%
Industry: 26.5%
Services: 50.9% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 15.51 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 82%
Industry: 5%
Services: 13% (1999 est.)

Unemployment Rate:


Population Below Poverty Line:

 35% (2001 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.4%
Highest 10%: 36.1% (2009)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 44.3 (2009)
45.7 (2002)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 215,700 (Sudan); 28,880 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 24,900 (Rwanda)
IDPs: 1.27 million (350,000 IDPs returned in 2006 following ongoing peace talks between the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the Government of Uganda) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 23.2% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $2.544 billion
Expenditures: $3.137 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 15% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -3.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 21.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
20.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 4% (2010 est.)
13.4% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 14% (31 December 2010 est.)
9.65% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 20.17% (31 December 2010 est.)
20.96% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $1.483 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.347 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $1.485 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.258 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $2.041 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.881 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $4.199 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.718 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $2.496 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.801 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $NA (31 December 2010)
$116.3 million (#REF!)

Agriculture - Products:

 Coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry


 Sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 8.9% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 2.176 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 0.9%
Hydro: 99.1%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 1.958 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 82.04 million kWh (2009)

Electricity - Imports:

 82.04 million kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 14,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 13,770 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$729.1 million (2010 est.)
-$1.064 billion (2009 est.)


 $2.164 billion (2010 est.)
$2.327 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

Exports - Partners:

 Sudan 15.3%, Kenya 10.2%, Rwanda 8.5%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.8%, UAE 7.7%, Netherlands 6.4%, Germany 5.4%, Belgium 4.1% (2010)


 $4.264 billion (2010 est.)
$3.787 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals

Imports - Partners:

 Kenya 17.1%, UAE 14.1%, China 8.5%, India 8.2%, South Africa 6.2%, Japan 5.9%, Germany 4.3% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $2.96 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.995 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Note: excludes gold

Debt - External:

 $2.938 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.49 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Ugandan Shilling to Any Currency

Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
2,166 (2010)
2,030 (2009)
1,658.1 (2008)
1,685.8 (2007)
1,834.9 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 327,100 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 12.828 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications

Domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 30 per 100 persons in 2009

International: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania

Broadcast Media:

 Public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and television networks; Uganda first began licensing privately-owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 8 (plus 1 repeater) (2001)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 19,927 (2010)

Internet Users:

 3.2 million (2009)

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 46 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 5
Over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 41
Over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 25
Under 914 m: 8 (2010)


 Total: 1,244 km
Narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 70,746 km
Paved: 16,272 km
Unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)


 (there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2009)

Ports and Terminals:

 Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

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Military Branches:

 Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF): Army (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent and that "no person under the apparent age of 13 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2010)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 7,249,271
Females age 16-49: 7,025,439 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 4,313,068
Females age 16-49: 4,200,901 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 423,923
Female: 420,236 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 2.2% of GDP (2006)

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Disputes - International:

 Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Uganda hosts 209,860 Sudanese, 27,560 Congolese, and 19,710 Rwandan refugees, while Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

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Last Updated: December 2011

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