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 Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic Coordinates:

 41 00 N, 64 00 E


 Total: 447,400 sq km
Land: 425,400 sq km
Water: 22,000 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly larger than California

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 6,221 km
Border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km


 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline (Rank: 244)

Maritime Claims:

 None (doubly landlocked)


 Mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


 Mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
Highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural Resources:

 Natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land Use:

 Arable land: 10.51%
Permanent crops: 0.76%
Other: 88.73% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 42,230 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 72.2 cu km (2003)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
Per capita: 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

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 Noun: Uzbekistani
Adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic Groups:

 Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)


 Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%


 Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%


 28,128,600 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 26.5% (male 3,817,755/female 3,635,142)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 9,620,356/female 9,742,818)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 560,574/female 751,955) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 25.7 years
Male: 25.2 years
Female: 26.3 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.94% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 17.43 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 5.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 36% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 TASHKENT (capital) 2.201 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 30 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 21.92 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 25.95 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 17.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 72.51 years
Male: 69.48 years
Female: 75.71 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.89 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 5.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 2.617 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital Bed Density:

 4.83 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 98% of population
Rural: 81% of population
Total: 87% of population
Urban: 2% of population
Rural: 19% of population
Total: 13% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 28,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 4.4% (2006)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.3%
Male: 99.6%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 11 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 11 years (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
Conventional short form: Uzbekistan
Local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
Local short form: Ozbekiston
Former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government Type:

 Republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch


 Name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
Geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
Time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


 1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 1 September (1991)


 Adopted 8 December 1992

Legal System:

 Civil law system

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991)

Head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)

Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president

Election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%, other 3.2%

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the new Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan)

Elections: last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014)

Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19

Note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Ismoil SAIFNAZAROV]; Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan [Boriy ALIXONOV, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Muhammadjon AHMADJONOV]; National Rebirth Party (Milliy Tiklanish) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Latif GULOMOV]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 There are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Ilxamdjan NEMATOV
Chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL
Embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

Flag Description:

 Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar

National Symbols:

 Khumo (mythical bird)

National Anthem:

 Name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
Lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

Note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

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Economy - Overview:

 Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; 11% of the land is intensely cultivated, in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of hydrocarbons, including natural gas and petroleum, provided about 40% of foreign exchange earnings in 2009. Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it has come under increasing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest. Nevertheless, Uzbekistan enjoyed a bumper cotton crop in 2010 amidst record high prices. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry, as well as increased cooperation with South Korea in the realm of civil aviation, may boost growth prospects. However, decreased demand for natural gas in Europe and Russia in the wake of the global financial crisis could reduce energy-related revenues in the near term. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), which it subsequently left in 2008, both organizations dominated by Russia. In the past Uzbek authorities had accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets, but no new expropriations occurred in 2008-09. Instead, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major U.S. and international corporations, offering attractive financing and tax advantages, and has landed a significant US investment in the automotive industry. Although growth slowed in 2009-10, Uzbekistan has seen few other effects from the global economic downturn, primarily due to its relative isolation from the global financial markets.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $85.85 billion (2010 est.)
$79.12 billion (2009 est.)
$73.19 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $38.99 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 8.5% (2010 est.)
8.1% (2009 est.)
9% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $3,100 (2010 est.)
$2,900 (2009 est.)
$2,700 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 22.3%
Industry: 38.4%
Services: 39.3% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 16 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 44%
Industry: 20%
Services: 36% (1995)

Unemployment Rate:

 1.1% (2010 est.)
1.1% (2009 est.)

Note: officially measured by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed

Population Below Poverty Line:

 26% (2008 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.8%
Highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan); 1,060 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: 3,400 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2007)


 Revenues: $12.7 billion
Expenditures: $12.57 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 32.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 0.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 8% of GDP (2010 est.)
9.7% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 15% (2010 est.)
14.1% (2009 est.)

Note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 38% in 2008

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $4.448 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.651 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $7.197 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.648 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $5.995 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.256 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $NA (31 December 2010)
$715.3 million (#REF!)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock


 Textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 8% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 47.42 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 88.2%
Hydro: 11.8%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 40.1 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 11.52 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 11.44 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 58,650 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 144,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 2,078 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 9,013 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 594 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 61.41 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 46.21 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 15.2 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $5.843 billion (2010 est.)
$3.58 billion (2009 est.)


 $12.01 billion (2010 est.)
$10.74 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles

Exports - Partners:

 China 21.8%, Russia 18.1%, Turkey 14.5%, Kazakhstan 8.5%, Bangladesh 8.5% (2010)


 $8.06 billion (2010 est.)
$9.023 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Imports - Partners:

 Russia 25.4%, South Korea 17.3%, China 13.9%, Germany 8.3%, Kazakhstan 5.3%, Ukraine 4.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $9.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $4.221 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$4.109 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert to Any Currency

Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
1,588.1 (2010)
1,466.7 (2009)
1,317 (2008)
1,263.8 (2007)
1,219.8 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 1.864 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 20.952 million (2009)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: digital exchanges in large cities but still antiquated and inadequate in rural areas

Domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are growing rapidly, with the subscriber base exceeding 16 million in 2009

International: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Afghanistan (2009)

Broadcast Media:

 Government controls media; 8 state-owned broadcasters - 4 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately-owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately-owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation and are prohibited from broadcasting live; about 15 privately-owned radio broadcasters; programming content includes news updates, music, call-in talk shows, and other entertainment in a half-Russian, half-Uzbek format mandated for private radio (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 20, FM 24, shortwave 3 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 28 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent and approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 47,718 (2010)

Internet Users:

 4.689 million (2009)

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 54 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 33
Over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 4 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
Under 914 m: 19 (2010)


 Gas 10,253 km; oil 868 km (2010)


 Total: 3,645 km
Broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2010)


 Total: 86,496 km
Paved: 75,511 km
Unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)


 1,100 km (2009)

Ports and Terminals:

 Termiz (Amu Darya)

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Military Branches:

 Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2009)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 7,887,292
Females age 16-49: 7,886,459 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 6,566,118
Females age 16-49: 6,745,818 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 306,404
Female: 295,456 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 3.5% of GDP (2010)

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Disputes - International:

 Prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Illicit Drugs:

 Transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

Trafficking in Persons:

 Current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Kazakhstan, Russia, the Middle East, and Asia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Kazakhstan and Russia for purposes of forced labor in the construction, cotton, and tobacco industries; men and women are also trafficked internally for the purposes of domestic servitude, forced labor in the agricultural and construction industries, and for commercial sexual exploitation

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Uzbekistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its negligible progress in ending forced labor, including forced child labor, in the annual cotton harvest, and did not make efforts to investigate or prosecute government officials suspected to be complicit in forced labor; the government did not conduct any awareness campaigns regarding forced labor in the annual cotton harvest or other internal trafficking, but did continue its previous awareness campaigns about the dangers of transnational trafficking (2011)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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