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COUNTRY PROFILES


PROFILE

Country Profile

Area: 945,000 sq km (365,000 sq miles)
Population: 42,500,000 (IMF, 2008)
Capital: Dodoma is the official capital and seat of Tanzania's Union Parliament. Dar Es Salaam remains home to government ministries and major institutions, including diplomatic missions.
People: Some 120 ethnic groups on the mainland, none exceeding 10% of the population. Larger groups include Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, Masai, Haya and Gogo. There are Asian and expatriate minorities.
Languages: The official languages are Kiswahili and English; of these, Kiswahili is by for the more widely spoken.
Religions: Christianity (35%), Islam (35%) and traditional beliefs (around 30%). (Zanzibar is roughly 98% Muslim).
Currency: Tanzania shilling (Tsh). £1 buys Tsh 2656.28 approx (October, 2011).
Major Political Parties: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), Chama cha Democrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA) and Civic United Front (CUF).
Head of State: President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (elected 2005 and re-elected October 2010).
Vice-President (Union): Dr. Mohammed Gharib Bilal (appointed November 2010)
President of Zanzibar: Ali Mohammed Shein (elected October 2010)
First Vice-President (Zanzibar): Seif Shariff Hamad-CUF (appointed November, 2010).
Second vice-President (Zanzibar): Ambassador Seif Ali Iddi-CCM (appointed November, 2010).
The two Vice-Presidents were appointed as part of the framework of the coalition government called the Government of National Unity (GNU) following the 31 July 2010 referendum that concluded the resolution process (Muafaka Accord) between the main political parties on the islands of Unguja and Pemba (Zanzibar) (CCM and CUF) .
Prime Minister: Mizengo Pinda (re-appointed November 2010 )
Foreign Minister: Bernard Membe (re-appointed November 2010 )
Membership of international groupings/organisations: East Africa Community (EAC) Southern African Development Community (SADC), Commonwealth, World Trade Organisation, African Union (AU), and the United Nations (UN).

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ECONOMY

GDP: US$ 23.5bn (2010, IMF)
GDP per capita: US$ 548 (2010, IMF)
GDP Growth: 6.5% (2010, IMF)
Inflation: 10.5% (2010, IMF)
Major economic sectors: agriculture, financial and business services, trade and tourism, manufacturing, mining.
Major trading partners: UK, South Africa, India, Japan, China, Kenya, and the UAE.

Tanzania's economy relies heavily on agriculture, which accounts for nearly half of GDP and employs 80% of the workforce. Tourism is growing in importance and ranks as the second highest foreign exchange earner after agriculture. Mineral production (gold, diamonds, tanzanite) has grown significantly in the last decade. It represents Tanzania's biggest source of economic growth, provides over 3% of GDP and accounts for half of Tanzania's exports.

Despite enthusiastic privatisation during the 1990s, and annual GDP growth of between 5% and 7%, the Tanzanian economy remains weak. The Government of former President Benjamin Mkapa saw through a vigorous programme of economic reform, in line with IMF guidelines. President Kikwete has pledged to continue these policies. Corruption is still endemic; Kikwete has said that addressing this will be one of his major priorities. Parliament and the media are playing an increasingly prominent role in ensuring Government accountability.

IMF Country Reports - Tanzania (http://www.imf.org/external/country/TZA/index.htm)

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HISTORY

The modern Tanzanian state is formed from the former colony of Tanganyika, on the mainland, and the former Protectorate of Zanzibar. Tanganyika was first a German colony, then a League of Nations mandated territory under British administration and later a UN trust territory, remaining under British control. In 1954, Julius Nyerere founded the Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU), which became the focus of African nationalism. Constitutional changes increased the voice of the African population. Elections were held in 1958-59 and 1960 which resulted in overwhelming victory for TANU. Tanganyika achieved independence in 1961 and became a republic in December 1962 with Nyerere as the first President. In 1965 the constitution was changed to establish a one-party system.

Zanzibar became independent from Britain (which had governed in cooperation with the Sultan) in December 1963. In January 1964, a revolution overthrew the sultanate government allowing members of the majority black population their first chance to hold political power. The Constitution was annulled. The Sultan (whose family had governed Zanzibar since the eighteenth century) was expelled and many of Zanzibar's Arab population fled the country.

Zanzibar was proclaimed a People's Republic. The union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar took place in April 1964. The new country was formally named the United Republic of Tanzania in October 1964. Zanzibar has its own President and a separate Parliament, which is responsible for all issues except for eight "Union competences" which include foreign and defence policy. On 5 February 1977, the ruling parties of the two territories merged to form the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), or 'Movement for the Revolution'.

Nyerere remained President until 1985. He was a pioneer of the African one party state, a leader of the non-aligned movement and an advocate of African socialism. After stepping down he remained an influential figure as Chairman of the CCM. His successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi, started a gradual process of economic liberalisation and democratic reform. In 1992 the Constitution was changed to allow for multi-party competition. A constitutional two-term Presidency rule has been upheld since 1985.

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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

East African Community (http://www.eac.int/)
The East African Community (EAC), consisting of Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Burundi and Rwanda, was formally launched in January 2001. It has a parliament, the East African Legislative Assembly, and a secretariat in Arusha (Tanzania). A Common Market protocol came into effect on 1 July 2010, and the EAC has ambitious plans geared towards forming a political federation by 2015.

Great Lakes Regional conflict

Tanzania has been affected by the prolonged crisis in the Great Lakes region. For decades Tanzania has hosted one of the largest refugee populations in Africa. UNHCR announced on 30 January 2007 that, for the first time in more than a decade, the population of refugee camps in Tanzania had dropped below 300,000. More than 250,000 refugees have returned to their homes from Tanzania since 2002. Up to 220,000 Burundian refugees had lived in self-supporting settlements in central Tanzania since 1972. However, they had the option to either return voluntarily to Burundi or become naturalised Tanzanian citizens; of the 163,000 that applied for Tanzanian citizenship, 155,000 were granted. There are now 53,800 Burundi refugees remaining in Tanzania, with an additional. 63,300 Congolese ( UNHCR Global report 2009 (http://www.unhcr.org/4c08f3039.html) ).

Tanzania's Relations with the UK

Visits

The UK has a warm bilateral relationship and a significant development partnership with Tanzania. There are frequent contacts, the most recent ones being:

Visits Outward:

-- November 2011: HRH The Prince of Wales and HRH The Duchess of Cornwall
-- November 2011: Henry Bellingham MP, FCO Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Africa
-- May 2011: Henry Bellingham MP, FCO Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Africa
-- September 2010: Stephen O’Brien, Minister of State for International Development
-- November 2008: Gareth Thomas, then Minister of State for International Development
-- November 2008: David Miliband, then Foreign Secretary
-- September 2007: Douglas Alexander, then Secretary of State for International Development
-- June 2005: Lord Triesman, then FCO Minister of State
-- January 2005: the Chancellor of the Exchequer
-- 2003: Baroness Amos, then FCO Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State
-- 2002: Baroness Amos, then FCO Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State

Visits Inward:

-- President Kikwete has visited London on several occasions since becoming President, including in January 2007 when he had meetings at Downing Street with Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. In March 2009 President Kikwete attended the pre-G20 African outreach event in the UK, hosted by Gordon Brown.

UK Nationals

An estimated 8,000 UK nationals live and work in Tanzania.

Cultural relations

The British Council is the focal point for cultural relations between Britain and Tanzania.

British Council: Tanzania (http://www.britishcouncil.org/tanzania.htm)

Policy

For recent statements of UK government policy towards Tanzania see Hansard (http://www.parliament.uk/hansard/hansard.cfm), enter Tanzania in the search engine.

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GEOGRAPHY

Tanzania lies south of the equator in East Africa. It borders on the Indian Ocean to the east, and has land borders with eight countries, anticlockwise from the north: Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (across Lake Tanganyika), Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. The climate is temperate on the coast and semi-temperate inland.

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TRADE AND INVESTMENT

Trade and Investment with the UK

The UK is one of Tanzania’s leading trading partners and the largest Foreign Direct Investor. UK companies have invested about £230m in Tanzania over the last 12 years. In 2009, British exports of goods to Tanzania were worth £97m.The UK’s trade balance with Tanzania stands at + £45 million (Jan- July 2010), and our main exports to Tanzania in 2009 were road vehicles and heavy industrial machinery (together, worth over £64 million). Recent offshore hydrocarbon discoveries (by British companies) promise windfall revenues for the state, though the lack of capacity and weak infrastructure could limit the exploitation of these assets. Recent pirate attacks in Tanzanian waters highlight potential vulnerabilities, including risks to British companies operating off-shore.

UK Businesses in Tanzania: BG Group, Vodafone/Vodacom, PWC, Shell, British Airways, Standard Chartered Bank, Barclays Bank, Globeleq/Songas, Heritage oil. Tullow oil, Dominion Oil and, Diageo, African Barrick Gold.

UK Trade & Investment Country Profile: Tanzania (http://www.uktradeinvest.gov.uk/ukti/tanzania)

Development

Located in East Africa, Tanzania is almost four times the size of the UK, with a rapidly growing population that currently stands at 40 million. It is rich in natural resources: minerals, hydrocarbons, fresh water and fertile land, and is strategically located along trade corridors that link its three Indian Ocean ports to five landlocked countries – giving it a potential of becoming a thriving middle income nation and a regional trading hub.

It has made impressive development gains in the past decade with GDP growth rates averaging 7% a year from 2001 to 2009. However, growth has largely been limited to sectors such as mining and telecoms, and has not made significant changes to income levels for most Tanzanians (80% of the population live on less than £20 a month). Other needs are also quite significant: Tanzania is one of five countries in the world with most malaria deaths, only 34% of children enrol in secondary school, 42% of all children are stunted through chronic malnutrition, and one woman in every 25 will die in childbirth.

The aim of the DFID Tanzania programme is to see Tanzania reduce the poverty of its people and become independent from aid. This will require a shift to sustainable growth which delivers jobs and raises rural incomes. In the next four years (2011 – 2015), DFIDT will focus on three major priorities: promoting wealth creation, delivering the Millennium Development Goals, and getting Government to work better for its people. This is in alignment with the objectives set out in the Government of Tanzania’s five year National Strategy for Growth and the Reduction of Poverty (2010/11 to 2014/15).

United Nations Development Programme (http://www.undp.org/)
World Bank (http://web.worldbank.org)
DFID Country Profile - Tanzania (http://www.dfid.gov.uk/countries/africa/tanzania.asp)

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POLITICS

Despite the large number of different ethnic groups which comprise the population, mainland Tanzania is peaceful and stable with few tribal or regional divisions - a legacy of the Nyerere years. CCM remains the dominant force in mainland politics.

In May 2005, CCM selected the then Foreign Minister Jakaya Kikwete to be the Party's presidential candidate in succession to Mkapa. Kikwete comfortably won the December 2005 election, securing 80% of the vote against a weak and divided opposition. The Civic United Front (CUF), with a strong power base on Zanzibar (most notably the island of Pemba). But the hopes of CHADEMA and other smaller parties of gaining more seats in the Union Parliament were not realised - CHADEMA won in five constituencies, with the United Democratic Party and Tanzania Labour Party winning one seat each.

In the October 2010 elections CCM won and President Kikwete was re-elected for a second, and final, term winning approx 63% of the vote. However CCM’s victory was with a reduced majority compared to over 80% in 2005. Since the reintroduction of multi-party politics in 1992, opposition parties have made gradual inroads into CCM’s support, but the ruling party remains dominant. The 2010 Parliamentary elections saw CCM win 258 seats, but the opposition CHADEMA and Civic United Front (CUF) parties made notable gains, winning 44 and 34 seats respectively. Smaller parties hold 6 seats between them.

However, the turnout for the October 2010 elections was comparatively low, dropping from over 80% in 2005 to less than 45% in 2010. The reason for the low turnout continues to be subject to ongoing debate.

Zanzibari Politics

The arrival of multi-party competition in the early 1990’s proved problematic in Zanzibar (consisting the islands of Unguja and Pemba islands). The 1995 and 2000 elections were very closely contested between CCM and CUF and marred by violence, intimidation and serious allegations of vote rigging. CUF refused to accept the results in 1995. A Commonwealth Agreement brokered in 1999 failed to solve the impasse. Mismanagement and chaos again marred the October 2000 election on Zanzibar. CUF refused to recognise the election of the CCM presidential candidate, Amani Karume, or to take their seats in the House of Representatives. In January 2001, 30 demonstrators were killed by the security forces during an opposition demonstration on Pemba island.

Reconciliation talks between the CCM and CUF culminated in the signing of the Muafaka (Swahili for Accord) Agreement between CCM and CUF on 10 October 2001. It provided for: an inquiry into the January 2001 violence; the dropping of charges against CUF members; by-elections to fill the 16 seats left vacant by CUF; the establishment of a permanent voter register for 2005 and reform of the Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC). In elections held on 30 October 2005, Amani Karume was re-elected President of Zanzibar with 53% of the vote.

The Zanzibar government held a referendum on 31 July 2010 for the people of Zanzibar to vote on a proposal to introduce a Government of National Unity (GNU) - a coalition government with ministerial positions allocated to the two main parties (CCM and CUF) in proportion to their share of the popular vote. The referendum vote was successful, and following a peaceful October 2010 Tanzanian elections the GNU was brought to power.

CCM Candidate Mohammed Ali Shein (CCM) was elected as President, after winning 50.1% of the vote. Runner up Seif Hamad (CUF) was appointed as Vice President and Ambassador Seif Ali Iddi (CCM) was appointed Second Vice President.

BBC News Country Profile: Tanzania (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1072330.stm)

BBC News: Africa (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/default.stm)

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HUMAN RIGHTS

Tanzania's generally positive human rights record has been tarnished by restrictions on the civil and political rights of opposition supporters on Zanzibar and the use of excessive force by the security forces when managing protests, particularly during a demonstration in Arusha in January 2011 where three people were killed, following disputed Mayoral elections. Albino killings and the killing of elderly on suspicion of witchcraft in Tanzania continues, with the Tanzanian Government working to deal with the problem.

In October 2011 Tanzania submitted their Universal Periodic Review (UPR) (http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/PAGES/TZSession12.aspx) in Geneva.

Human Rights Annual Report 2010 (http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/global-issues/human-rights/around-the-world/human-rights-report/)

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Last Updated: November 2011

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