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Mongolia: Bibliography
Country Study > Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Chapter 1

Aalto, Pentti. "Swells of the Mongol-Storm Around the Baltic," Acta Orientalia [Budapest], 36, 1982, 5-15.

Akademiia Nauk SSSR. History of the Mongolian People's Republic. Moscow: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, 1973.

Allen, Thomas D. "Time Catches Up with Mongolia," National Geographic. 167, No. 2, February 1985, 242-69.

Allsen, Thomas T. The Policies of the Grand Qan Möngke in China, Russia, and the Islamic Lands, 1251-1259. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Basilov, Vladimir N. (ed.). Nomads of Eurasia. (Trans. Mary Fleming Zirin.) Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 1989.

Bawden, Charles R. The History of Mongolia. New York: Praeger, 1968.

-- -- -- . The Modern History of Mongolia. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1989.

Bira, Sh., and N. Ishjamts. National-Liberation Movements in Mongolia in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries. (Papers of Mongolian Delegation to XIV International Congress of Historical Sciences, San Francisco, August 22-29, 1975.) Ulaanbaatar: 1975.

Boyle, John A. The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370. London: Variorum Reprints, 1977.

Bregel, Yuri. "Tribal Tradition and Dynastic History: The Early Rulers of the Qongrats According to Munis," Asian and African Studies [Haifa], 16, No. 3, November 1982, 357-98.

Brown, William A., and Urgunge Onon (trans. and annot.). History of the Mongolian People's Republic. (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 65.) Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1976.

Buell, Paul D. "The Role of the Sino-Mongolian Frontier Zone in the Rise of Cinggis-Qan." Pages 63-76 in Henry G. Schwarz (ed.), Studies on Mongolia: Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Mongolian Studies. Bellingham: Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 1979.

-- -- -- . "Sino-Khitan Administration in Mongol Bukhara," Journal of Asian History [Wiesbaden], 13, No. 2, 1979, 121-51.

Campi, Alicia J. "Mongolia and Tibet in the Seventeenth Century: The Nature of. Special Relationship." Pages 77-87 in Henry G. Schwarz (ed.), Studies on Mongolia: Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Mongolian Studies. Bellingham: Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 1979.

Cassidy, Robert B., Jr. "Mongolia: At Plan's End," Asian Survey. 11, No. 1, January 1971, 86-91.

Chambers, James. The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. New York: Atheneum, 1979.

Chan, Hok-lan. Legitimation in Imperial China: Discussions under the Jurchen-Chin Dynasty (1115-1234). (Publications on China of Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington, 38.) Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1984.

Cheney, George A. The Pre-Revolutionary Culture of Outer Mongolia. (Mongolia Society Occasional Papers, No. 5.), Bloomington, Indiana: The Mongolia Society, 1968.

Cleaves, Francis Woodman (trans.). The Secret History of the Mongols; For the First Time Done into English out of the Original Tongue and Provided with an Exegetical Commentary. 1. (Trans., Harvard-Yenching Institute.) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.

Dardess, John W. Conquerors and Confucians: Aspects of Political Change in Late Yüan China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973.

-- -- -- . "From Mongol Empire to Yüan Dynasty: Changing Forms of Imperial Rule in Mongolia and Central Asia," Monumenta Serica [St. Augustin, West Germany], 30, 1972-73, 117-65.

Dawson, Christopher (ed.). The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. New York: AMS Press, 1980.

De Hartog, Leo. "The Army of Genghis Khan," Army Quarterly and Defence Journal [Tavistock, Devon, United Kingdom], 109, No. 4, October 1979, 476-85.

-- -- -- . Genghis Khan: Conqueror of the World. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt. The Military Life of Genghis, Khan of Khans. New York: Franklin Watts, 1969.

Dziewanowski, M.K.. History of Soviet Russia. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.

Endicott-West, Elizabeth. Mongolian Rule in China: Local Administration in the Yuan Dynasty. (Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, and Harvard-Yenching Institute, 29.) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Ewing, Thomas E. Between the Hammer and the Anvil? Chinese and Russian Policies in Outer Mongolia, 1911-1921. (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 138.) Bloomington: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1980.

-- -- -- . "Ch'ing Policies in Outer Mongolia, 1900-1911," Modern Asian Studies [London], 14, Pt. 1, February 1980, 145-57.

-- -- -- . "Revolution on the Chinese Frontier: Outer Mongolia in 1911," Journal of Asian History [Wiesbaden], 12, No. 2, 1978, 101-19.

Fairbank, John K., Edwin O. Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig. East Asia: Tradition and Transformation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.

Fisher, Alan. The Crimean Tatars. (Hoover Institution Publication, 166.) Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1978.

Fletcher, Joseph. "The Mongols: Ecological and Social Perspectives," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 46, No. 1, June 1986, 11-50.

Gorelik, Mikhail V., and Mark G. Kramarovskii. "The Mongol-Tatar States of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries." Pages 67-86 in Vladimir N. Basilov (ed.) Nomads of Eurasia. (Trans. Mary Fleming Zirin.) Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 1989.

Green, Elizabeth E. "China and Mongolia: Recurring Trends and Prospects for Change," Asian Survey. 26, No. 12, December 1986, 1337-63.

Grousset, René. Conqueror of the World: The Life of Chingis Khan. (Trans. Marian McKellar and Denis Sinor.) New York: Orion Press, 1966.

-- -- -- . The Empire of the Steppes:. History of Central Asia. (Trans. Naomi Walford.) New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.

Gumilyev, Lev Nikolaevich. Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom: The Legend of the Kingdom of Prester John. (Trans. R.E.F. Smith.) (Past and Present Publications Series.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

-- -- -- . "The Secret History of the Mongols in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries: As They Themselves Wrote It." Pages 193-208 in D.A. Olderogge (ed.), The Countries and Peoples of the East: Selected Articles. Moscow: Nauka, 1974.

Haggard, M.T. "Mongolia: New Soviet Moves to Bolster Ruling Group," Asian Survey. 6, No. 1, January 1966, 13-17.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia: The First Communist State in Asia." Pages 82-113 in Robert A. Scalapino (ed.), The Communist Revolution in Asia: Tactics, Goals, and Achievements. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1965.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia: The Uneasy Buffer," Asian Survey. 5, No. 1, January 1965, 18-24.

Haider, Mansura. "The Mongol Traditions and Their Survival in Central Asia (XIV-XV Centuries)," Central Asiatic Journal [Wiesbaden], 28, Nos. 1-2, 1984, 57-79.

Halkovic, Stephen A., Jr. The Mongols of the West. (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 148.) Bloomington: Indiana Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1985.

Halperin, Charles J. Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

-- -- -- . The Tatar Yoke. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, 1986.

Heaton, William R. "Mongolia in 1982: Looking Forward but Also Back," Asian Survey. 23, No. 1, January 1983, 47-52.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1983: Mixed Signals," Asian Survey. 24, No. 1, January 1984, 127-33.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia: Looking Forward at Fifty," Asian Survey. 12, No. 1, January 1972, 69-77.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia 1978: Continuing the Transition," Asian Survey. 19, No. 1, January 1979, 58-64.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia 1979: Learning from 'Leading Experiences'," Asian Survey. 20, No. 1, January 1980, 77-83.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia: Troubled Satellite," Asian Survey. 13, No. 2, February 1973, 246-51.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia -- Year of Socialist Competition," Asian Survey. 14, No. 1, January 1974, 30-35.

Heissig, Walther.. Lost Civilization: The Mongols Rediscovered. London: Thames and Hudson, 1966.

Henthorn, William E. Korea: The Mongol Invasions. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1963.

Hibbert, R.A. "The Mongolian People's Republic in the 1960's," World Today. 23, No. 3, March 1967, 122-30.

Howorth, Henry H. History of the Mongols, From the 9th to the 19th Century. 4 vols. London: n.p., 1876-1927. (Burt Franklin Research and Source Work Series, 85.) New York: Burt Franklin, 1965.

Hulsewé, A.F.P. China in Central Asia, The Early Stage: 125 B.C.-A.D. 23: An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1979.

Hyer, Paul. "Japan's Occupation of Mongolia (1931-1945)." Pages 161-68 in Ch'en Chieh-hsiu (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth East Asian Altaistic Conference, December 26, 1979- January 2, 1980. Taipei: National Taiwan University, 1980.

-- -- -- . "The Dalai Lamas and the Mongols," Tibet Journal [Dharmasala], 6, No. 4, Winter 1981, 3-12.

Isono, Fujiko. "Soviet Russia and the Mongolian Revolution in 1921," Past and Present [Oxford], 83, May 1979, 116-40.

Jackson, P. "The Dissolution of the Mongol Empire," Central Asiatic Journal [Wiesbaden], 22, Nos. 3-4, 1978, 186-244.

Jagchid, Sechin. Essays in Mongolian Studies. (Monograph Series, David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies, 3.) Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1988.

-- -- -- . "The Failure of. Self-Determination Movement: The Inner Mongolian Case." Pages 229-45 in William O. McCagg, Jr., and Brian D. Silver (eds.), Soviet Asian Ethnic Frontiers. New York: Pergamon Press, 1979.

-- -- -- . "The Kitans and Their Cities," Central Asiatic Journal [Wiesbaden], 25, Nos. 1-2, 1981, 70-88.

-- -- -- . "Kitan Struggle Against Jurchen Oppression: Nomadism Versus Sinicization," Zentralasiastische Studien [Bonn], 16, 1982, 165-85.

-- -- -- . "Mongolian Nationalism in Response to Great Power Rivalry, 1900-1950," Plural Societies [The Hague], 4, No. 1, Spring 1973, 43-57.

Jagchid, Sechin, and Paul Hyer. Mongolia's Culture and Society. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979.

Kahn, Paul. The Secret History of the Mongols; The Origins of Chingis Khan: An Adaptation of the Yuan Ch'ao Pi Shih, Based Primarily on the English Translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984.

Keightley, David N. (ed.). The Origins of Chinese Civilization. (Studies on China, 1.) Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Kirchner, Walther.. History of Russia. (6th ed.) New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1976.

Kohl, Philip (ed.). The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia: Recent Soviet Discoveries. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1981.

Kwanten, Luc. Imperial Nomads:. History of Central Asia, 500-1500. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.

Kwanten, Luc, and Susan Hesse. Tangut (Hsi Hsia) Studies:. Bibliography. (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 137.) Bloomington: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1980.

Lamb, Harold. Genghis Khan: Emperor of All Men. New York: Doubleday, 1962.

Langlois, John D., Jr. (ed.). China under Mongol Rule. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Lattimore, Owen. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. Boston: Beacon Press, 1962.

-- -- -- . Mongol Journeys. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1941.

-- -- -- . Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955.

Lin, Chiang C. "The Mongolian-Soviet Relations, 1945-1975." Asian Forum. 8, Spring 1976, 15-24.

Lister, R.P. The Secret History of Genghis Khan. London: Peter Davies, 1969.

Lowry, Glenn D., and A. Heller. "The Mongolian Expansion." Pages 89-168 in Storm Across Asia. New York: HBJ Press, 1980.

McMillan, James. "Mongolia: The Economy in 1968," Asian Survey. 9, No. 1, January 1969, 23-28.

Michael, Franz H. The Origin of Manchu Rule in China. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1942.

Miyakawa, Junko. "The Khalkha Mongols in the Seventeenth Century." Pages 178-81 in Ch'en Chieh-hsiu (ed.), Proceedings of International Ch'ing Archives Symposium, July 2, 1978-July 6, 1978. Taipei: National Palace Museum, 1982.

Morgan, D.O. "Who Ran the Mongol Empire?" Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society [London], No. 2, 1982, 124-36.

Morgan, David. The Mongols. (People of Europe Series.) New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

Moses, Larry W. The Political Role of Mongol Buddhism. (Indiana University Uralic Altaic Series, 133.) Bloomington: Asian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, 1977.

Moses, Larry W., and Stephen A. Halkovic, Jr. Introduction to Mongolian History and Culture. (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 149.) Bloomington: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1985.

Murphy, George G.S. Soviet Mongolia:. Study of the Oldest Political Satellite. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Olschki, Leonardo. l'Asia di Marco Polo. (Civiltà Veneziana Studi, 2.) Venice and Rome: Istituto per la Collaborazione Culturale, 1978.

-- -- -- . Guilaume Boucher:. French Artist at the Court of the Khans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1946.

-- -- -- . Marco Polo's Precursors. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1943.

Onon, Urgunge (ed. and trans.). Mongolian Heroes of the Twentieth Century. New York: AMS Press, 1976.

Onon, Urgunge, and Derrick Pritchatt. Asia's First Modern Revolution: Mongolia Proclaims Its Independence in 1911. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1989.

Phillips, E.D. The Mongols. (Ancient Peoples and Places Series.) New York: Praeger, 1969.

Plano Carpini, John of. Geschichte der Mongolen und Reisebericht, 1245-1247. (Trans. and ed., Friedrich Risch.) Leipzig: E. Pfeiffer, 1930.

Prawdin, Michael. (Pseud. for M. Charol.) The Mongol Empire. London: Allen and Unwin, 1940.

Presniakov, A.E. The Formation of the Great Russian State:. Study of Russian History in the Thirteenth to Fifteenth Centuries. (Trans., A.E. Moorhouse.) Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1970.

Ratchnevsky, Paul. Cinggis-khan: Sein Leben und Wirken. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1983.

Rockstein, Edward. "The Mongol Invasions of Korea: 1231," Mongolia Society Bulletin. 11, No.. (21), Fall 1972, 41-54.

Ronay, Gabriel. The Tartar Khan's Englishman. London: Cassell, 1978.

Rossabi, Morris (ed.). China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

-- -- -- . The Jurchens of the Yuan and Ming. (Cornell University East Asia Papers, 27.) Ithaca: China-Japan Program, Cornell University, 1982.

-- -- -- . Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Rubruck, William of. The Journey of William of Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1253-55, As Narrated by Himself, with Two Accounts of the Earlier Journey of John of Pian de Carpine. (Trans. and ed., William Woodville Rockhill.) (2d Series, No. 4.) London: Hakluyt Society, 1900.

Rupen, Robert A. How Mongolia is Really Ruled:. Political History of the Mongolian People's Republic, 1900-1978. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1979.

-- -- -- . The Mongolian People's Republic. Stanford: Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University, 1966.

-- -- -- . "The Mongolian People's Republic and Sino-Soviet Competition." Pages 262-92 in A. Doak Barnett (ed.), Communist Strategies in Asia:. Comparative Analysis of Governments and Parties. (Praeger Publications in Russian History and World Communism, 132.) New York: Praeger, 1963.

-- -- -- . Mongols of the Twentieth Century. (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 37, Pts. 1-2.) Bloomington: Indiana University, 1964.

-- -- -- . "Outer Mongolia since 1955," Pacific Affairs [Vancouver], 30, No. 4, December 1957, 342-57.

-- -- -- . "Recent Trends in the Mongolian People's Republic," Asian Survey. 4, No. 4, April 1964, 812-20.

Salisbury, Harrison E. "Mongolia Revisited," Mongolia Society Bulletin. 1, No. 1, Winter 1962, 17-22.

Sanders, Alan J.K. "Mongolia: From Sambuu to Tsedenbal," Asian Survey. 14, No. 11, November 1974, 971-84.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1975: 'One Crew in Battle, One Brigade in Labour' with the USSR," Asian Survey. 16, No. 1, January 1976, 66-71.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1984: From Tsedenbal to Batmönh," Asian Survey. 25, No. 1, January 1985, 122-30.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia 1976: Drawing Together Frankly with the Soviet Union," Asian Survey. 17, No. 1, January 1977, 27-33.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia 1977: Directive No. 14," Asian Survey. 18, No. 1, January 1978, 29-35.

-- -- -- . Mongolia: Politics, Economics and Society. (Marxist Regimes Series.) Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1987.

Sanjdorj, M. Manchu Chinese Colonial Rule in Northern Mongolia. (Trans. Urgunge Onon.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.

Saunders, John Joseph. The History of the Mongol Conquests. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1971.

Schamiloglu, Uli. "Tribal Politics and Social Organization in the Golden Horde." (Ph.D. dissertation.) New York: Columbia University, 1986.

Schwarz, Henry G. The Minorities of Northern China:. Survey. (Studies on East Asia, 17.) Bellingham: Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 1984.

Sebes, Joseph S. "The Fragmentation of the Mongols During the Ming Dynasty and Their Step-by-Step Conquest by the Manchus and Russians (Part I)." Canada-Mongolia Review [Saskatoon], 2, No. 2, 1976, 127-49.

-- -- -- . "The Fragmentation of the Mongols During the Ming Dynasty and Their Step-by-Step Conquest by the Manchus and Russians (Part II)." Canada-Mongolia Review [Saskatoon], 3, No. 1, May 1977, 24-32.

Serruys, Henry. The Mongols and Ming China: Custom and History. (Ed. Francoise Aubin.) London: Variorum Reprints, 1987.

Sicker, Martin. The Strategy of Soviet Imperialism: Expansion in Eurasia. New York: Praeger, 1988.

Sinor, Denis. Inner Asia and Its Contacts with Medieval Europe. London: Variorum Reprints, 1977.

-- -- -- . Inner Asia: History, Civilization, Languages;. Syllabus. (2d rev. ed.) (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 96.) Bloomington: Indiana University, 1971.

-- -- -- . "Interpreters in Medieval Inner Asia." Asian and African Studies [Haifa], 16, No. 3, November 1982, 293-320.

-- -- -- . "Notes on Inner Asian Historiography, IV: The Mongols in the 13th Century," Journal of Asian History [Wiesbaden], 23, No. 1, 1989, 26-79.

Sinor, Denis (ed.). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Smith, John Masson, Jr. "Ayn Jalut: Mamluk Success or Mongol Failure?" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 44, No. 2, December 1984, 307-45.

Smith, Robert A. "Mongolia: In the Soviet Camp," Asian Survey. 10, No. 1, January 1970, 25-29.

Spuler, Bertold. History of the Mongols, Based on Eastern and Western Accounts of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. (Trans., Helga Drummond and Stuart Drummond.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.

-- -- -- . The Mongols in History. (Trans. Geoffrey Wheeler.). New York: Praeger, 1971.

Ssanang Ssetsen, Chungtaidschi. The Bejewelled Summary of the Origins of the Khans. (Trans., John R. Krueger.) Bloomington, Indiana: The Mongolia Society, 1964.

Tamura, Jitsuzô. "The Legend of the Origin of the Mongols and Problem Concerning Their Migration," Acta Asiatica [Tokyo], No. 24, 1973, 1-19.

Tang, Peter S.H. Russian and Soviet Policy in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia, 1911-1931. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1959.

Tao, Jing-shan. The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China:. Study of Sinicization. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1976.

Tumenjargal, E. (comp. and ed.). The 1917 Russian Revolution and Mongolia: Towards the 60th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. Ulaanbaatar: Montsame, 1977.

Underdown, Michael. "Aspects of Mongolian History, 1901-1915," Zentralasiatische Studien [Bonn], 15, 1981, 151-240.

-- -- -- . "Banditry and Revolutionary Movements in Late 19th and Early 20th Century Mongolia," Mongolian Studies. 6, 1980, 109-16.

Valliant, Robert B. "Japanese Involvement in Mongol Independence Movements, 1912-1919," Mongolia Society Bulletin. 11, No.. (21), Fall 1972, 1-32.

Van der Kuijp, L.W.J. "A Note to the Development of Buddhism in Mongolia," Canada-Mongolia Review [Saskatoon], 1, No. 1, 1975, 67-94.

Vernadsky, George. The Mongols and Russia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Weidlich, Mary Frances. "Mongolia in 1980:. Year of Adjustments and Resolves," Asian Survey. 21, No. 1, January 1981, 63-69.

Wiencek, Henry. "Genghis Khan and the Mongols." Pages 9-88 in Storm Across Asia. New York: HBJ Press, 1980.

Zagoria, Donald S. The Sino-Soviet Conflict, 1956-1961. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.

Zhagvaral, A. (ed.). The Mongolian People's Republic. Ulaanbaatar: Committee of Sciences of the Mongolian People's Republic, 1956.

Zhao, Zhan. "On the Origins of the Mongols," Journal of the Anglo-Mongolian Society [Cambridge], 9, Nos. 1-2, December 1984, 43-47.

Chapter 2

Akademiia Nauk SSSR. History of the Mongolian People's Republic. Moscow: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, 1973.

Allen, Thomas D. "Time Catches Up with Mongolia," National Geographic. 167, No. 2, February 1985, 242-69.

Basilov, Vladimir N. (ed.) Nomads of Eurasia. (Trans., Mary Fleming Zirin.) Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 1989.

Brown, William A., and Urgunge Onon (Trans. and annot.). History of the Mongolian People's Republic. (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 65.) Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1976.

Cable, Mildred, and Francesca French. The Gobi Desert. London: Virago, 1984.

Chadra, B. "Cosmic Horizons in Science." Pages 53-58 in Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.), The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Chapman, M.J. "Bactrians and Dromedaries." Asian Affairs [London], 18, Part 3, October 1987, 276-82.

Chen Cheng-hsiang.. Geography of Mongolia. (Research Report, 28.) Hong Kong: Geographical Research Center, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1970.

"The Curative Power of Mineral Springs," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (80), 1984, 23.

Enkh, T. "The Team -- A United Family," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], Nos. 2-3 (65-66), 1982, 21-22.

Fletcher, Joseph. "The Mongols: Ecological and Social Perspectives," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 46, No. 1, June 1986, 11-50.

Gellner, Ernest. "Buddha and Marx:. Review Article," Comparative Studies in Society and History. 29, No. 2, April 1987, 381-84.

Gombo, S. "A Sociologist's Notes," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (71), 1983, 8-9.

Haining, Thomas. "The Mongols and Religion," Asian Affairs [London], 17, Pt. 1, February 1986, 19-32.

Humphrey, Caroline. Karl Marx Collective: Economy, Society, and Religion in. Siberian Collective Farm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Jagchid, Sechin, and Paul Hyer. Mongolia's Culture and Society. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979.

Kaser, Michael. "The Industrial Revolution in Mongolia," World Today [London], 38, No. 1, January 1982, 12-17.

Khazanov, A.M. Nomads and the Outside World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Kimura, Hisao. "The Activities of the MPR State Committee for Terminology." Pages 26-29 in Studies on Mongolia. (Proceedings of First North American Conference on Mongolian Studies.) Bellingham: Western Washington University, 1979.

Lattimore, Owen. Mongol Journeys. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1941.

-- -- -- . Nomads and Commissars: Mongolia Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Lkhamsuren, M. "Manpower Policy and Planning in the Mongolian People's Republic," International Labour Review [Geneva], 121, No. 4, July-August 1982, 469-80.

Michel, Walter. Im Zeichen des Sojombo: Impressionen aus der Mongolischen Volksrepublik. Berlin: Verlag Neues Leben, 1981.

Micheli, Silvio. Mongolia: In Search of Marco Polo and Other Adventures. (Trans., Bruce Penman.). London: Hollis and Carter, 1967.

Mongolia. Central Statistical Board. National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986. Ulaanbaatar: 1986.

-- -- -- . Central Statistical Board. National Economy of the MPR in 1981. Ulaanbaatar: 1982. (Trans., Joint Publication Research Service.) (JPRS-MON-86-001.) Washington, January 27, 1986.

Moses, Larry W. The Political Role of Mongol Buddhism. (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 133.) Bloomington: Asian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, 1977.

Moses, Larry W., and Stephen A. Halkovic, Jr. Introduction to Mongolian History and Culture. (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 149.) Bloomington: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1985.

Murphy, George G.S. Soviet Mongolia:. Study of the Oldest Political Satellite. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.). The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Nyam-Osor, D. "Health Protection for the People." Pages 96-98 in Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.), The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Onun, Urgunge (ed. and trans.). Mongolian Heroes of the Twentieth Century. New York: AMS Press, 1976.

Oyuntsetseg, S. "The Work and Life of. Building Team," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (75), 1983, 9-10.

Pastoral Production and Society. (Proceedings of International Meeting on Nomadic Pastoralism, Paris, 1976.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Petrov, Victor P. Mongolia:. Profile. New York: Praeger, 1980.

Purevsuren, N. "The Glorious Festival of Tsagan Sar." Pages 182-85 in Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.), The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Rinchin, L. "Collectivisation: The Key to. Rise in the Standard of Living." Pages 73-78 in Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.), The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Rinchindorj, T. "Cooperation in Medicine," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (67), 1982, 8-9.

Rosenberg, Daniel. "Leaders and Leadership Roles in. Mongolian Collective: Two Case Studies," Mongolian Studies. 7, 1981-82, 17-51.

-- -- -- . "'Negdel' Development:. Socio-Cultural Perspective," Mongolian Studies. 1, 1974, 62-75.

Rundall, Richard A., and Raymond D. Terell. "Educational Desert or Oasis? An Educator's Trek to Outer Mongolia," Adolescence. 21, No. 81, Spring 1986, 185-89.

Rupen, Robert A. How Mongolia Is Really Ruled:. Political History of the Mongolian People's Republic, 1900-1978. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1979.

-- -- -- . Mongols of the Twentieth Century. (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 37, Pts. 1-2.) Bloomington: Indiana University, 1964.

Sanders, Alan J.K. Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society. (Marxist Regimes Series.) Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1987.

-- -- -- . The People's Republic of Mongolia:. General Reference Guide. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.

-- -- -- . "Scientific Restructuring," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 10, 1987, 42-43.

-- -- -- . "The Tainted Waters: The Government Begins To Address Pollution Problems," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], October 20, 1988, 40.

Sanzhasuren, R. "The Torch of Knowledge." Pages 89-95 in Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.), The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

"Science in Progress," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (73), 1983, 26-27.

Sodnom, D. "Planning: The Decisive Advantage of Socialism." Pages 43-48 in Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.), The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Soviet Union. Council of Ministers. Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography. Mongolskai Narodnaia Respublika, ekonomicheskaia karta dlia srednei shkoly (Mongolian People's Republic Economic Map for the Middle School). Moscow: 1985.

-- -- -- . Council of Ministers. Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography. Mongolskaia Narodnaia Respublika, fizcheskara karta dlia srednes shakoly (Mongolian People's Republic, Physical Map for the Middle School). Moscow: 1985.

-- -- -- . Council of Ministers. Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography. Mongolskaia Narodnaia Respublika, Spravochnaia Kart (Mongolian People's Republic, Reference Map). Moscow: 1985.

Tamir, B. "Mongolian State University: Forty Years of Progress," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (68), 1982, 10-13.

Times of London. The Times Atlas of the World: Comprehensive Edition. (2d rev. ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.

United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. World Demographic Estimates and Projections, 1950-2025. New York: 1988.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, 1989. (CPAS WF 89-001.) Washington: May 1989.

-- -- -- . Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. Center for International Research. World Population Profile, 1987. Washington: 1987.

Vainshtein, Seyvan I. Nomads of South Siberia: The Pastoral Economies of Tuva. (Ed., Caroline Humphrey; trans., Michael Colenso.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Vreeland, Herbert Harold. Mongol Community and Kinship Structure. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1962. Reprint. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1973.

Walder, Andrew G. Communist Neo-Traditionalism: Work and Authority in Chinese Industry. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Weiers, Michael (ed.). Die Mongolen: Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1986.

Weissleder, Wolfgang (ed.). The Nomadic Alternative: Modes and Models of Interaction in the African-Asian Deserts and Steppes. The Hague: Mouton, 1978.

Xu Wenyi. "Mongolia Revisited." Shijie Zhishi (World Knowledge) [Beijing], November 16, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: China. (FBIS- CHI-88-239.) December 13, 1988, 10-11.

Zachariah, K.C., and My T. Vu. World Population Projections, 1978-88 Edition: Short and Long-Term Estimates. Baltimore: World Bank, 1988.

Zhao Qingmao. "Mongolia: Economic Reforms Under Way," Beijing Review [Beijing], 31, No. 39, September 26, 1988, 12-13.

Zorig, D. "An Active Promoter of Health Care," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], Nos. 2-3 (65-66), 1982, 26-27.

Chapter 3

Allen, Thomas D. "Time Catches Up with Mongolia," National Geographic. 167, No. 2, February 1985, 242-69.

Bach, Quintin V.S. Soviet Economic Assistance to the Less Developed Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.

Bolotin, Evgeny. "In the Geologists' Wake," New Times [Moscow], No. 48, November 1985, 26-27.

Brown, William A., and Urgunge Onon (trans. and annot.). History of the Mongolian People's Republic. (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 65.) Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1976.

Butler, William E. The Mongolian Legal System: Contemporary Legislation and Documentation. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982.

"Civil Aviation of the MPR: Today and Tomorrow," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (78), 1985, 8-9.

Enebish, B. "Mongolia's Transport Systems," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (48), 1979, 25-7.

Europa Yearbook, 1988. 2 vols. London: Europa, 1988.

"Foreign Tourists! Mongolia,. Country of Eternally Blue Skies, Awaits You!" Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], No.. (79), 1985, 32.

Heaton, William R. "Mongolia in 1986: New Plan, New Situation," Asian Survey. 27, No. 1, January 1987, 75-80.

Holub, Alois. "Mongolia: Modernizing the Industrial Structure." Pages 536-59 in Ngo Manh-Lan (ed.) Unreal Growth: Critical Studies on Asian Development. 1. Delhi: Hindustan, 1984.

Kaser, Michael. "The Industrial Revolution in Mongolia," World Today [London], 38, No. 1, January 1982, 12-17.

Lkhamsuren, M. "Manpower Policy and Planning in the Mongolian People's Republic," International Labour Review [Geneva], 121, No. 4, July-August 1982, 469-80.

Mongolia. Central Statistical Board. National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986. Ulaanbaatar: 1986.

"Mongolia Moves Ahead," Communications International [London], 14, No. 10, October 1987, 22.

Nordby, Judith. "The Mongolian People's Republic in the 1980s: Continuity and Change," Journal of Communist Studies [London], 3, No. 4, December 1987, 113-31.

Ovdiyenko, Ivan Kharitonovichueger. Economic-Geographical Sketch of the Mongolian People's Republic. (Ed., John R, Krueger; trans., The Mongolia Society.) Bloomington, Indiana: The Mongolia Society, 1965.

Petrov, Victor P. Mongolia:. Profile. New York: Praeger, 1980.

Qi Hongmin. "China and Mongolia Speed Up Business," China Daily [Beijing], (Business Weekly Supplement) March 27, 1989, 1, 4.

Sanders, Alan J.K. "Economic Realism," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 10, 1987, 41-44.

-- -- -- . "Exporting the Problem," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], October 27, 1988, 42.

-- -- -- . "Glasnost Gathers Support Despite Limits on Debate," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 10, 1987, 40-41.

-- -- -- . "Merger Mania," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], February 11, 1988, 62.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1988: Year of Renewal," Asian Survey. 29, No. 1, January 1989, 46-53.

-- -- -- . Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society. (Marxist Regimes Series.) Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1987.

-- -- -- . "Scientific Restructuring," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 10, 1987, 42-43.

-- -- -- . "The Tainted Waters: The Government Begins to Address Pollution Problems," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], October 20, 1988, 40.

-- -- -- . "The Winds of Change," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], July 16, 1987, 62, 64.

Soviet Union. Council of Ministers. Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography. Mongolskaia Nerodnaia Respublika, ekonomicheskaia karta dlia srednei shkoly (Mongolian People's Republic, Economic Map for the Middle School). Moscow: 1985.

-- -- -- . Editorial Board Academy of Sciences. Oriental Studies Institute. Mongolskaya Narodnaya Respublika (Mongolian People's Republic). Moscow: Nauka, 1986.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, 1989. (CPAS WF 89-001.) Washington: May 1989.

World Aviation Directory, 1989. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.

Zhao Qingmao. "Mongolia: Economic Reforms Under Way," Beijing Review [Beijing], 31, No. 39, September 26, 1988, 12-13.

Chapter 4

Batmonh, Jambyn. "Renewal," New Times [Moscow], No. 9, February 27, 1989, 33-36.

Brown, William A., and Urgunge Onon (trans. and annot.). History of the Mongolian People's Republic. (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 65.) Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1976.

Butler, William E. The Mongolian Legal System: Contemporary Legislation and Documentation. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982.

Enkhsaikhan, Jargalsaikhany. "Ensuring Peace in Asia and the Pacific: The Mongolian Initiative," Asian Survey. 25, No. 10, October 1985, 1031-38.

Europa Yearbook, 1988. London: Europa, 1988.

Farrett, Kenneth. "Mongolia in 1987: Out from the Cold," Asian Survey. 28, No. 1, January 1988, 78-85.

Flanz, Gisbert H., and Karen Shaw Kerpen (eds.). "Mongolian People's Republic." In Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz (eds.), Constitutions of the Countries of the World. 10. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana, February 1981.

Friters, Gerald M. Outer Mongolia: And Its International Position. New York: Octagon Books, 1974.

Ginsburgs, George. "Mongolia's 'Socialist' Constitution," Pacific Affairs [Vancouver], 34, No. 2, Summer 1961, 141-56.

Gorbachev, Mikhail. "Excerpts from Mikhail Gorbachev's Speech in Krasnoyarsk on September 16, 1988," Far Eastern Affairs [Moscow], No. 1, January 1989, 2-4.

Green, Elizabeth E. "China and Mongolia: Recurring Trends and Prospects for Change," Asian Survey. 26, No. 12, December 1986, 1337-63.

Heaton, William R. "Mongolia in 1986: New Plan, New Situation," Asian Survey. 27, No. 1, January 1987, 75-80.

Hillary, Naylor. "Letter from Ulan Bator," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], November 19, 1982, 98.

Jagchid, Sechin, and Paul Hyer. Mongolia's Culture and Society. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979.

Katerinich, A., and A. Sherstnoyov. "The Road of Peace and Progress," Far Eastern Affairs [Moscow], No. 4, 1984, 13-24.

Lattimore, Owen. "Mongolia as. Leading State," Mongolian Studies. 10, 1986-87, 5-18.

"Leadership Profile: Jambyn Batmonh," Defense and Foreign Affairs Weekly. September 3-9, 1984, 7.

Mann, Steve. "Making It in Mongolia: At the New Post, an 'Aroma of Mutton'," State. No. 320, March 1989, 7-12.

Mongolia. Central Statistical Board. National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986. Ulaanbaatar: 1986.

Nordby, Judith. "The Mongolian People's Republic in the 1980s: Continuity and Change," Journal of Communist Studies [London], 3, No. 4, December 1987, 113-31.

Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.). The 60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti, 1981.

Petrov, Victor P. Mongolia:. Profile. New York: Praeger, 1980.

Rupen, Robert A. How Mongolia Is Really Ruled:. Political History of the Mongolian People's Republic, 1900-1978. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1979.

-- -- -- . "The Mongolian People's Republic and Sino-Soviet Competition." Pages 262-92 in A. Doak Barnett (ed.), Communist Strategies in Asia:. Comparative Analysis of Governments and Parties. (Praeger Publications in Russian History and World Communism, 132.) New York: Praeger, 1963.

Sanders, Alan J.K. "Looking Beyond the Steppe: Sino-Soviet Relations Remain the Key to the Future," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 10, 1987, 39-44.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1984: From Tsedenbal to Batmonh," Asian Survey. 25, No. 1, January 1985, 122-30.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1988: Year of Renewal," Asian Survey. 29, No. 1, January 1989, 46-53.

-- -- -- . Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society. (Marxist Regimes Series.) Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1987.

-- -- -- . "Tsedenbal Is Riding High," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], November 19, 1982, 38-44.

Scalapino, Robert A. Major Power Relations in Northeast Asia. (Asian Agenda Report, 9.) Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1987.

Sheel, Ram Rahul. "Mongolia in International Perspective," International Studies [Delhi], 22, No. 3, July- September 1985, 236-50.

Stolper, Thomas E. China, Taiwan, and the Offshore Islands. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1985.

Union of International Associations (ed.). Yearbook of International Organizations, 1988-89. Munich: K.G. Saur, 1989.

United States. Board on Geographic Names. Gazetteer of Mongolia. (2d ed.) Washington: Defense Mapping Agency, 1988.

-- -- -- . Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, 1989. (CPAS WF 89-001.) Washington: May 1989.

-- -- -- . Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. Background Notes: Mongolia. (Department of State Publication, No. 8318.) Washington: May 1987.

"U.S. and Mongolia Establish Diplomatic Relations," Department of State Bulletin. 87, No. 2120, March 1987, 41.

Zheleznyakov, A. "The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party at Its Present-Day Stage," Far Eastern Affairs [Moscow], No. 4, 1983, 144-46.

Chapter 5

"Activities Mark Anniversary of Halhyn Gol Victory," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], July 24, July 27, 1984; Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], August 15, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS- MON-85-002.) March 24, 1985, 48-52.

Akademia Nauk SSSR. History of the Mongolian People's Republic. Moscow: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, 1973.

"Anniversary of Military Newspaper Celebrated," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], February 7, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-84-012.) December 20, 1984, 187-91.

"Announcement of Soviet Troop Withdrawal -- Cuts in Mongolian Forces," Keesing's Record of World Events [London], March 1989, 36523.

"Antimissile Defense System Press Conference Held," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], May 15, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-84-012.) December 20, 1984, 132-33.

"Army To Be Saluted," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], March 18, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-053.) March 21, 1989, 3.

Batmonh, Jambyn. "Renewal," New Times [Moscow], No. 9, February 27, 1989, 33-36.

"Batmonh, Rogachev Discuss Troop Withdrawal," Ulaanbaatar International Service, [Ulaanbaatar], February 14, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-030.) February 15, 1989, 6.

Bellamy, Christopher D. "Swift Flight of the Parthian: Great Captains of Asia," Military Review. 67, No. 7, July 1987, 30-39.

"Biographic Information on Mongolian Personalities," Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. No. 312. (JPRS 73503.) May 21, 1979, 1-2, 9-11.

"Biographic Information on Mongolian Personalities," Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. No. 323. (JPRS 76168.) August 6, 1980, 16.

"Biographic Information on Mongolian Personalities," Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. No. 336. (JPRS 79909.) January 21, 1982, 2.

"Biographic Information on Mongolian Personalities," Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-84-007.) May 7, 1984, 4, 11, 28.

"Biographic Information on Officials," Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS- MON-87-002.) April 15, 1987, 51, 145.

Brown, William A., and Urgunge Onon (trans. and annot.). History of Mongolian People's Republic. Harvard East Asian Monographs, 65.) Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1976.

Butler, William E. The Mongolian Legal System: Contemporary Legislation and Documentation. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982.

"Construction Troops Deputy Chief," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], July 10, 1978. Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. No. 301. (JPRS 71711.) August 18, 1978, 16.

Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.

"Correction Camps Chief Holds News Conference," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], June 3, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS- EAS-89-113.) June 14, 1989, 8.

"Council of Ministers of MPR Organized," Hodolmor [Ulaanbaatar], July 3, 1986. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-87-003.) April 16, 1987, 46-47.

"Crime on the Descent," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], January 22, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-150.) August 7, 1989, 10-11.

"Defense Assistance Society," Pravda Vostoka [Tashkent], December 12, 1978. Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. No. 306. (JPRS 72833.) February 16, 1979, 25-26.

"Defense Popularization Month," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], February 14, 1978. Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. No. 299. (JPRS 71058.) May 3, 1978, 29.

De Hartog, Leo. "The Army of Genghis Khan." Army Quarterly and Defence Journal [Tavistock, Devon, United Kingdom], 109, No. 4, October 1979, 476-85.

"A Delicate Balancing Act," Asiaweek [Hong Kong], March 24, 1989, 21-22.

"Division to Leave Mongolia," Krasnaya Zvezda [Moscow], January 16, 1987. Joint Publications Research Service, USSR Military Affairs. (JPRS-UMA-87-040.) August 18, 1987, 42.

"Division Withdrawn from Mongolia," Krasnaya Zvezda [Moscow], April 11, 1987. (Joint Publications Research Service, USSR Military Affairs. (JPRS-UMA-87-037.) July 14, 1987, 77.

"Duration of Compulsory Military Service Cut," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], August 29, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-168.) August 30, 1988, 4.

Europa Yearbook, 1988. London: Europa, 1988.

"15 May Set for Soviet Troop Pullout," Kyodo [Tokyo], May 6, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-087.) May 8, 1989, 10-11.

"First Detachments of Soviet Troops Leave," Ulaanbaatar International Service, [Ulaanbaatar] May 17, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-094.) May 17, 1989, 8.

Flanz, Gisbert H., and Karen Shaw Kerpen (eds.). "Mongolian People's Republic." In Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz (eds.)," Constitutions of the Countries of the World. 10. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana, February 1981.

"Forty-fifth Anniversary of Halhyn Gol Victory," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], August 17; August 21, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-85-005.) May 2, 1985, 77-88.

"General Acknowledges Border Incidents," Ulaanbaatar International Service, [Ulaanbaatar], October 3, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-192.) October 4, 1988, 3.

"General Banchindorj Praises Soviet Army, Navy," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], February 24, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-039.) March 1, 1989, 4.

"Hazing Reportedly Persists in People's Army," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], May 29, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS- EAS-89-103.) May 1, 1989, 7.

Heaton, William R. "Mongolia in 1986: New Plan, New Situation," Asian Survey. 27, No. 1, January 1987, 75-80.

Jamiyan, J. "The MPR Auxiliary Defence Association Is 50 Years Old," Voyennyye Znaniya [Moscow], No. 7, July 1979. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. No. 318. (JPRS 74698.) December 3, 1979, 11-16.

Jarrett, Kenneth. "Mongolia in 1987 -- Out from the Cold?" Asian Survey. 28, No. 1, January 1988, 78-85.

Keller, Bill. "Gorbachev Promises Big Cut in Military Spending," New York Times. January 19, 1989, A6.

Kuznetsov, I. "Heroes of the Mongolian People's Republic Who Participated in the Battles on the Halhyn Gol River," Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Zhurnal [Moscow], No. 9, September 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, USSR Report: Military Affairs, Military History Journal. (JPRS-UMA-85-004.) January 15, 1985, 48-51.

"Leaders Celebrate Army's 68th Anniversary." Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], March 17, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS- EAS-89-053.) March 21, 1989, 2-3.

The Military Balance. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1978-88.

"Military Festivities Held in Ulaanbaatar," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], May 11, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-84-012.) December 20, 1984, 192-93.

"Military Meeting," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], November 10, 1982. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. No. 352. (JPRS 82655.) January 17, 1983, 38-39.

"Mongolian Army Feats, Present Vigilance Noted," Krasnaya Zvezda [Moscow], March 16, 1979. Joint Publication Research Service, Translations on USSR Political and Sociological Affairs. No. 948. (JPRS 73270.) April 20, 1979, 34-35.

"Mongolian Defence Cuts," Jane's Defence Weekly [London], March 18, 1989, 447.

"Mongolian Press Suggests Armed Forces Reduction," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], January 5, 1989, 14.

"Mongolians Reported in Cosmonaut Training," Moscow Domestic Service [Moscow], March 8, 1978. Joint Publications Research Service, USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts: Geophysics, Astronomy and Space. No. 418. (JPRS 70878.) March 31, 1978, 36.

Morozov, S. "Military Tribunals Conference Held," Krasnaya Zvezda [Moscow], March 7, 1987. Joint Publications Research Service, USSR Military Affairs. (JPRS- UMA-87-037.) July 14, 1987, 76.

"Moscow to Remove More Troops from Mongolia," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], February 2, 1989, 14.

"MPA Official Writes on Soviet Armed Forces Anniversary," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], January 27, 1978. Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. (JPRS 70697.) February 28, 1978, 6.

"Namsray Attends Meeting to Mark Legal Profession," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], June 27, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS- EAS-88-125.) June 29, 1988, 7.

"New Talk -- Soviet Troop Withdrawal from Mongolia Not Yet Completely Resolved," Hsin Wan Pao [Hong Kong], December 10, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: China. (FBIS-CHI-88-238.) December 12, 1988, 3-4.

Paramonov, V. "The 'Mongolian Peasant' Squadron Attacks," Krasnaya Zvezda [Moscow], October 11, 1983. Joint Publications Research Service, USSR Report: Military Affairs. No. 1817. (JPRS 84853.) December 1, 1983, 61-62.

"People's Call for Armed Forces Cut Noted," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], February 13, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service [Ulaanbaatar], Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-029.) February 14, 1989, 6.

"Periodic Studies Announced for Security Forces," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], August 18, 1988 Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-163.) August 23, 1988, 4.

"Press Conference Held on Defense Aims Month," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], February 14, 1985. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS- MON-85-003.) March 18, 1985, 25.

"Public Prosecution Activities Amended," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], March 15, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-051.) March 16, 1988, 8.

"Renewal and Tasks of Public Security Organs," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], December 6, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-057.) March 27, 1989, 9-14.

"Renewal of Law Enforcement Agencies Urged," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], August 23, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-165.) August 25, 1988, 4.

Sanders, Alan J.K. "Defining the Limits: Sino-Mongolian Treaty Signals Improved Ties," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 22, 1988, 18.

-- -- -- . "Ill Winds of Anarchy: Party Organ Warns Against Misuse of Democratisation," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], March 16, 1989, 21-22.

-- -- -- . "Mongolia in 1988: Year of Renewal," Asian Survey. 29, No. 1, January 1989, 46-53.

-- -- -- . Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society. (Marxist Regimes Series.) Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1987.

Sapov, V. "Strategy of Defense," Pravda [Moscow], April 18, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Soviet Union. (FBIS-SOV-89-075.) April 20, 1989, 25-27.

"Security Minister Denies Existence of Opposition," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], May 31, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-105.) June 2, 1989, 13.

"Send-off for Soviet Soldiers," Komsomolskaya Pravda [Moscow], April 17, 1987. Joint Publications Research Service, USSR Military Affairs. (JPRS-UMA-87-040.) August 18, 1987, 42.

"A Solemn Meeting," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], March 20, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-84-010.) June 27, 1984, 54-58, 61-63.

"Soviet Delegation; Air Force Personnel Awards," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], May 24, 1985. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-007.) July 5, 1985, 17.

"Soviet Troops Begin Withdrawal 15 May," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], May 15, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-89-093.) May 16, 1989, 5.

"Soviets Announce Troop Withdrawal from Mongolia," Far Eastern Economic Review [Hong Kong], March 16, 1989, 14.

"Soviets to Pull Out from Mongolia 15 May," Xinhua [Beijing], May 12, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: China. (FBIS-CHI-89-092.) May 15, 1989, 22-23.

"Soviets Withdraw Troops, Tanks from Mongolia," Xinhua [Beijing], June 1, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: China. (FBIS-CHI-89-104.) June 1, 1989, 5.

"Statement to China Deals with Soviet Troops in Mongolia," Novosti Mongolii [Ulaanbaatar], March 3, 1984. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. (JPRS-MON-84-012.) December 20, 1984, 185-186.

Troshin, A.I., and Yu.. Gurov. "The Brigade Contract at MPR Construction Projects," Ekonomika Stroitel'stva [Moscow], No. 2, February 1979. Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. No. 311. (JPRS 73249.) April 18, 1979, 21-27.

"Tsedenbal Urges Vigilance Against PRC Threat in Speech to USSR Troops," Pravda [Moscow], May 11, 1978. Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on Mongolia. No. 301. (JPRS 71711.) August 18, 1978, 3-5.

"Unen Reflects on Choybalsan Place in History," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], December 19, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-246.) December 22, 1988, 4.

United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. Background Notes: Mongolia. (Department of State Publication, No. 8318.) Washington: May 1987.

"When the Policy Remains Unchanged.. .," Unen [Ulaanbaatar], October 30, 1979. Joint Publications Research Service, Mongolia Report. No. 325. (JPRS 76562.) October 7, 1980, 24-37.

"Work of Law Enforcement Agencies Viewed," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], July 28, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS- EAS-88-149.) August 3, 1988, 3-4.

"Yondon Announces Armed Forces Reduction," Montsame [Ulaanbaatar], March 4, 1989. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS- EAS-89-042.) March 6, 1989, 8.

"Yondon on Soviet Troop Withdrawal Announcement," Ulaanbaatar International Service [Ulaanbaatar], December 10, 1988. Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. (FBIS-EAS-88-238.) December 12, 1988, 8.

Zorig, D. "An Active Promoter of Health Care," Mongolia [Ulaanbaatar], Nos. 2-3 (65-66), 1982, 26-27.




Last Updated: June 1989


Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Mongolia was first published in 1989. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on Factba.se.

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