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Spain: Military Commands and Organization
Country Study > Chapter 5 > National Security > Military Commands and Organization


As a result of the organizational reforms since 1977, culminating in the 1984 law that reaffirmed civil authority over the military establishment, command responsibility for the three armed services, was vested in the JEMAD, who reported directly to the minister of defense. The post was held by a senior officer of each of the three services on an alternating basis, with no specified term. The JEMAD was responsible for proposing major strategic objectives that formed the basis for the Joint Strategic Plan, prepared by the Ministry of Defense for the prime minister's approval. The JEMAD also prepared operational directives and plans derived from the Joint Strategic Plan, determined requirements for the conduct of military operations in case of war, coordinated logistics among the three services, and supervised the training and effectiveness of the services. To carry out these functions, the JEMAD had at his disposal a staff of five sections: plans and organization, intelligence, strategy, logistics, and telecommunications and electronic warfare.

At a senior level in the Ministry of Defense, the office of the secretary of state for defense was responsible for material and economic resources. The office was divided into three directorates general, concerned, respectively, with economic affairs, armaments and materiel, and infrastructure. At a parallel level, the under secretary of defense and his staff supervised technical services, personnel training, administrative services, and the general council.

The first JEMAD was Admiral Angel Liberal Lucini. In October 1986, Lucini was succeeded by Lieutenant General Gonzalo Puigserver Roma, an air force officer; the chiefs of staff of the three service branches were replaced at the same time. The wholesale removal of the top military leadership reportedly was carried out by Minister of Defense Narcis Serra i Serra in reaction to their opposition to several of the Socialist government's reform measures, including the reduction of compulsory military service to twelve months and changes in the military justice system that expanded the rights of individual soldiers.

Data as of December 1988

Last Updated: December 1988

Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Spain was first published in 1988. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on

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Section 160 of 183


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