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Syria: Bibliography
Country Study > Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Chapter 1

Abd-Allah, Umar F. The Islamic Struggle in Syria. Berkeley: Mizan Press, 1983.

Abu Jaber, Kamal S. The Arab Baath Socialist Party. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1966.

Altounyan, Taqui. "To Aleppo Once Again," Middle East International [London], No. 26, August 1973, 20-22.

Amnesty International. Report from Amnesty International to the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, 1983. London: November 1983.

Amos, John W. Arab-Israeli Military Political Relations: Arab Perceptions and the Politics of Escalation. New York: Pergamon Press, 1979.

Antonius, George. The Arab Awakening. New York: Capricorn, 1963.

Atiya, Aziz. Crusade, Commerce, and Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962.

Barker, A.J. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1981.

Communique of the Islamic Revolution in Syria and its Success. Bayan al-Thawrat al-Islamiyah fi Suriya wa Najahuha. Damascus: Command of the Islamic Revolution in Syria,. November 1980.

Bleaney, C.H. (comp.) Modern Syria: An Introduction. Durham, United Kingdom: University of Durham, 1979.

Burke, Edmund III. "A Comparative View of French Native Policy in Morocco and Syria, 1912-1925," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 9, No. 2, May 1973, 175-86.

Cass, Alain. "Assad's Difficult Choice," Middle East International [London], No. 55, January 1976, 9-11.

Dawisha, Adeed I. Syria and the Lebanese Crisis. London: Macmillan, 1980.

Dawisha, Karen. "The USSR in the Middle East: Superpower in Eclipse," Foreign Affairs, 61, No. 2, Winter 1982- 83, 438-51.

Deeb, Marius. The Lebanese Civil War. New York: Praeger, 1980.

________. "Lebanon's Continuing Conflict," Current History, January 1985, 13-15.

Dekmejian, Richard H. Fundamentalism in the Arab World. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1985.

Dessouki, Ali E. (ed.). Islamic Resurgence in the Arab World. New York: Praeger, 1982.

Devlin, John F. The Ba'th Party:. History from Its Origins to 1966. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1976.

_______. Syria: Modern State in an Ancient Land. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983.

Drysdale, Alasdair. "Syria's Troubled Baathi Regime," Current History, January 1981, 32-35, 37-38.

Eigeland, Tor. "Ebla, City of the White Stones," Aramco World Magazine, 29, No. 2, March-April 1978, 10-19.

Farsoun, Samih, and Walter Carroll. "The Civil War in Lebanon," Monthly Review, 28, No. 2, June 1976.

Fedden, Robin. Syria and Lebanon. (3d ed.) London: John Murray, 1965.

Field, Michael. "Focus on Syria under Assad," Middle East International [London], No. 14, July 1972, 26-27, 30.

Freedman, Robert O. Soviet Policy Toward the Middle East Since 1910. (3d ed.) New York: Praeger, 1982.

George, A.R. "The Nomads of Syria: End of. Culture?" Middle East International [London], No. 22, April 1973, 21.

Glubb, John Bagot. Syria Lebanon Jordan. New York: Walker, 1967.

Greenwood, Bart. "The Fickle Stream," Middle East International [London], No. 22, April 1973, 23-25.

Grey, Lawrence. "The Destruction of Kuneitra," Middle East International [London], No. 41, November 1974, 24-26.

Haley, P. Edward, and Lewis W. Snider (eds.). Lebanon in Crisis: Participants and Issues. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1979.

Hayani, Ibrahim. "Syria's Traditional Role," Middle East International [London], No. 38, August 1974, 9-11.

Herzog, Chaim. The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1982.

Hinnebusch, Raymond A. "Local Politics in Syria: Organization and Mobilization in Four Village Cases," Middle East Journal, 30, No. 1, Winter 1976, 1-24.

Hitti, Philip K. Makers of Arab History. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

________. Syria:. Short History. London: Macmillan, 1959.

Holden, David. "Lebanon's Future in Syria's Hands," Middle East International [London], No. 57, March 1976, 6-9.

Holmstrom, David. "Syria -- Unity, Liberty, and Socialism," Middle East International [London], No. 22, April 1973, 11-13.

Humphreys, R. Stephen. From Saladin to the Mongols. The Ayyubids of Damascus: 1193-1260. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1977.

Hureau, Jean. La Syrie aujourd'hui. Paris: Editions J.A., 1977.

Joarder, Safiuddin. "The Syrian Nationalist Uprising (1925-1927) and Henri de Jouvenel," Muslim World, 67, No. 3, July 1977, 185-204.

Kaylani, Nabil M. "The Rise of the Syrian Ba'th, 1940-1958: Political Success, Party Failure," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 3, No. 1, January 1972, 3-23.

Keilany, Ziad. "Socialism and Economic Change in Syria," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 9, No. 1, January 1973, 61-72.

Khadduri, Majid. Political Trends in the Arab World. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Khoury, Philip S. Syria and the French Mandate. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Legum, Colin, and Shaked Haim (eds.). Middle East Contemporary Survey, 1976-77, 1. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978.

Legum, Colin, Shaked Haim, and Daniel Dishon (eds.). Middle East Contemporary Survey, 4, 1979-80. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1981.

________. Middle East Contemporary Survey, 5, 1980-81, New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

Longrigg, S.H. Syria and Lebanon Under French Mandate. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958.

Ma'oz, Moshe. Syria under Hafiz al-Asad: New Domestic and Foreign Policies. Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem Press, 1986.

Malone, Joseph J. The Arab Lands of Western Asia. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

Mansfield, Peter. "Resurgent Syria," Middle East International [London], 8, No. 4, October 1977, 545-63.

Naomi, Joy. Syrian Intervention in Lebanon. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

The Middle East, 6th ed., Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1986.

Middle East and North Africa 1983-1984 (l3th ed.) London: Europa, 1983.

Newhall, Richard A. The Crusades. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963.

Perera, Judith. "The Shifting Futures of Syria's Muslim Brotherhood," Middle East, May 1983, 25-28.

Peters, F.E. "The Nabateans in the Hawran," American Oriental Society Journal, No. 97, July 1977, 263-77.

Petran, Tabitha. Syria. New York: Praeger, 1972.

________. "Syria: Anxious but Resolute," Middle East International [London], No. 41, November 1974, 26-28.

________. "Syria:. Skeptical Ally," Middle East International [London], No. 49, July 1975, 12-14.

________. "Syria: Closing the Ranks," Middle East International [London], No. 53, November 1975, 7-8.

Rabinovitch, Itamar. The War for Lebanon, 1970-1983. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Reid, Donald M. "The Syrian Christians and Early Socialism in the Arab World," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 5, No. 2, April 1974, 177-93.

_________. "Syrian Christians, the Rags-to-Riches Story, and Free Enterprise," International Journal of Middle East Studies, I, No. 4, October 1970, 358-67.

Roberts, David. The Ba'th and the Creation of Modern Syria. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

Roberts, Gordon. "The Druzes -- A Community Apart," Middle East International [London], No. 26, August 1973, 23-25.

Runciman, Steven.. History of the Crusades.. vols. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

Sachar, Howard M. The Emergence of the Middle East, 1914- 1924. New York: Knopf, 1969.

Salih, Shakeeb. "The British-Druze Connections and the Druze Rising of 1896 in the Hawran," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 13, No. 2, May 1977, 251-57.

Salihi, Kamal Suleiman. Syria under Islam. Delmar, New York: Caravan, 1977.

Seale, Patrick. The Struggle for Syria. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Shorrock, William I. French Imperialism in the Middle East: The Failure of the French Policy in Syria and Lebanon, 1900- 1914. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976.

_________. "The Origin of the French Mandate in Syria and Lebanon: The Railroad Question, 1901-1914," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 1, No. 3, July 1970, 133-53.

Simon, Reena S. "Hashemite Conspiracy: Hashemite Unity Attempts, 1921-58," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 5, No. 3, June 1974, 314-27.

Spagnolo, J.P. "French Influence in Syria Prior to World War I: The Functional Weakness of Imperialism," Middle East Journal, 23, No. 1, Winter 1969, 45-62.

Springborg, Robert. "Baathism in Practice: Agriculture, Politics, and Political Culture in Syria and Iraq," Middle Eastern Studies, 17, No. 2, April 1981, 191-209.

Strategic Survey 1982-1983. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1983.

Tibawi, A.L.. Modern History of Syria, Including Lebanon and Palestine. London: St. Martin's Press, 1969.

Torrey, Gordon H. "The Ba'th -- Ideology and Practice," Middle East Journal, 23, No. 4, Autumn 1969, 445-70.

Van Dam, Nikolaos. The Struggle for Power in Syria: Sectarianism, Regionalism, and Tribalism in Politics, 1961- 1978. London: Croom Helm, 1979.

Ziadeh, Nicola A. Urban Life in Syria under the Early Mamluks. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1970.

Chapter 2

Addison, Charles Greenstreet. Damascus and Palmyra. New York: Arno Press, 1973.

Al-Ahsan, Syed Azim. "Economic Policy and Class Structure in Syria, 1958-1980," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16, August 1984, 301-23.

Akhrass, Safouh. Revolutionary Change and Modernization in the Arab World. Damascus: Atlas, 1972.

Anderson, J.N.D. "The Syrian Law of Personal Status," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies [London], 27, No. 1, 1955, 34-49.

Antonius, George. The Arab Awakening. New York: Capricorn, 1963.

Arberry, A.J. (ed.). Religion in the Middle East: Three Religions in Concord and Conflict.. vols. London: Cambridge University Press, 1969.

Baer, Gabriel. Population and Society in the Arab East. New York: Praeger, 1964.

Bahnassi, Afif. Damascus: Ash-Sham. (Libraire Universelle). Tunis: Smail, 1982.

Batto, Bernard Frank. Studies on Women at Mari. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.

Bell, Gertrude Lowthian. Syria. New York: Arno Press, 1973.

Berger, Morroe. The Arab World Today. New York: Doubleday, 1964.

Betts, Robert Brenton. "The Indigenous Arabic-Speaking Christian Communities of Greater Syria and Mesopotamia." (Unpublished Ph.D dissertation). Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 1968.

Bliss, Frederick Jones. The Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine. New York: AMS Press, 1977 (reprint).

Brockelmann, Carl. History of the Islamic Peoples. New York: Putnam, 1939.

Cleland, W. Wendell. "Social Conditions and Social Changes," Journal of International Affairs, 6, No. 1, Winter 1952, 7-20.

Copeland, W. The Land and People of Syria. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1972.

Costello, V.F. Urbanization in the Middle East. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Crary, Douglas D. "The Villager." Pages 43-59 in Sydney N. Fisher (ed.), Social Forces in the Middle East, III. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1955.

Daher, Adel. Current Trends in Arab Intellectual Thought. (Research Program on Economic and Political Problems and Prospects of the Middle East, RM-5979-FF, December 1969.) Santa Monica: Rand, 1969.

Devlin, John. F. Syria: Modern State in an Ancient Land. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983.

Dewdney, J.C. "Syria: Patterns of Population Distribution." Pages 130-42 in J.I. Clarke and W.B. Fisher (eds.), Populations of the Middle East and North Africa. New York: Africana, 1972.

Dodd, Peter C. "Family Honor and the Forces of Change in Arab Society," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 4, January 1973, 40-54.

Dodge, Bayard. "The Settlement of the Assyrians on the Khabbur," Journal of the Royal Asian Society [London], 27, 1940, 301-20.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Quarterly Economic Review of Syria [London], 1-4; 1985-86.

Fisher, W.B. The Middle East:. Physical Social, and Regional Geography. New York: Dutton, 1956.

"From Tel-Aviv Yedi'ot Aharanot in Hebrew," Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Middle East and Africa, 5, No. 161 (FBIS-MEA-86-161), August 20, 1986, I4.

George, A.R. "The Nomads of Syria: End of. Culture?" Middle East International [London], No. 22, April 1973, 21.

Gibb, Hamilton A.R. "The Heritage of Islam in the Modern World," Pt. 1, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 1, No. 1, January 1970, 1-14.

__________. "The Heritage of Islam in the Modern World," Pt. 2, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 1,No. 3, July 1970, 221-37.

Gibb, H.A.R., and J.H. Kramers (eds.). Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1953.

Haddad, George. Fifty Years of Modern Syria and Lebanon. Beirut: Dar al Hayat, 1950.

Haddad, Robert M. Syrian Christians in Muslim Society: An Interpretation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Halpern, Manfred. The Politics of Social Change in the Middle East and North Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Hansen, Henny. An Ethnographical Collection from the Region of the Alawites. Copenhagen: Munksgard, 1976.

Hitti, Phillip K. History of Syria. New York: Macmillan, 1951.

________. History of the Arabs. New York: Macmillan, 1956.

________. Islam:. Way of Life. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1970.

Hodgson, Marshall G.S. The Venture of Islam.. vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Holt, P.M., Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis (eds.). The Cambridge History of Islam.. vols. London: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Horton, Alan Williams. "A Syrian Village in Its Changing Environment." (Ph.D. dissertation.) Cambridge: Harvard University, 1961.

Hottinger, Arnold. "How the Arab Bourgeoisie Lost Power," Journal of Contemporary History, 3, No. 3, 1968, 111-28.

Hourani, A.H. "Race, Religion and Nation-State in the Near East." Pages 1-19 in A.M. Lutfiyya and C.W. Churchill (eds.), Readings in Arab Middle Eastern Societies and Cultures. Paris: Mouton, 1970.

Hudson, J. "Syria," Focus, 18, No. 8, April 1968, 1-12.

Human Relations Area Files. Area Handbook on Syria.. vols. (HRAF Subcontractors Monograph, Dropsie College.) New Haven: HRAF Press, 1956.

Hurewitz, J.C. Middle East Dilemmas. New York: Harper, 1953.

Issawi, Charles. "The Arab World's Heavy Legacy." Pages 13-25 in Jack H. Thompson and Robert D. Reischauer (eds.), Modernization of the Arab World. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1966.

________. "Social Structure and Ideology in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and the UAR," Journal of International Affairs, 19, No. 1, 1965, 39-46.

Joseph, John. The Nestorians and Their Muslim Neighbors. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961.

Joint Publications Research Service -- JPRS (Washington). The following items are from the JPRS series:

Translations on the Near East. "Emigration of Arab Technicians: Why and How?" al- Thawrah, Damascus, December 8, 1970. (JPRS 52617, No. 578, March 15, 1971.) "Premier Salam Returning from Damascus Satisfied with Results of Talks, Al Asad Says No Kidnapping and No interference in Lebanese Affairs," Al Nahar, Beirut, December 5, 1970 (JPRS 52247, 1971). Kramer, Martin. Syria's Alawis and Shi'ism. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, December 1984.

LaFay, Howard. "Syria," National Geographic, 154, 3, September 1978, 326-61.

Lapidus, Ira. Middle Eastern Cities:. Symposium on Ancient, Islamic, and Contemporary Middle Eastern Urbanism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

Lerner, Daniel. The Passing of Traditional Society. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1958.

Lewis, Bernard (ed.). Race and Color in Islam. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

_______. Islam and the Arab World. New York: Knopf, 1976.

Lewis, Norman. "The Isma'ilis of Syria Today," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society [London], 39, January 1952, 69-77.

Longuenesse, Elizabeth. "The Syrian Working Class Today." Pages 17-24 in MERIP Reports. Washington: Middle East Research and Information Project, No. 15. July-August 1985.

Ma'oz, Moshe, and Avner Yaniv (eds.). Syria under Assad. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1986.

Massignon, L. "Nusairi". Pages 453-56 in H.A.R. Gibb and J.H. Kramers (eds.), Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974.

Munayyir, Muhammad Arif ibn Ahmad. The Hejaz Railway and the Muslim Pilgrimage. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1971.

Musil, Alois. The Manners and Customs of the Rwala Bedouin. New York: American Geographical Society, 1928.

Nahas, M.K. "The Family in the Arab World," Pages 232-46 in Ailon Shiloh (ed.), Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1969.

"Nomadic Populations in Selected Countries in the Middle East and Related Issues of Sedentarization and Settlement." Pages 105-17 in Studies on Selected Development Problems in Various Countries in the Middle East. New York: United Nations, 1970.

Patai, Raphael. Golden River to Golden Road: Society, Culture, and Change in the Middle East. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1969.

Petran, Tabitha. Syria. New York: Praeger, 1972.

Prins, A.H.D. "The Syrian Schooner: Problem Formulation in Maritime Culture Change." Pages 404-23 in Ailon Shiloh (ed.), Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1969.

Prothro, Edwin Terry, and Lufty Najib Diab. Changing Family Patterns in the Arab East. Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1974.

Reid, Donald M. "The Syrian Christians and Early Socialism in the Arab World," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 5, No. 2, April 1974, 177-93.

________. "Syrian Christians, the Rags-to-Riches Story, and Free Enterprise," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 1, No. 4, October 1970, 358-67.

Roberts, Gordon. "The Druzes -- A Community Apart," Middle East International [London], No. 26, August 1973, 23-25.

Salih, Shakeeb. "The British-Druze Connection and the Druze Rising of 1896 in the Hawran," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 13, No. 2, May 1977, 251-57.

Savory, Roger. "Land of the Lion and the Sun." Pages 245-72 in Bernard Lewis (ed.), Islam and the Arab World. New York: Knopf, 1976.

Sayigh, Yusif A. The Determinants of Arab Economic Development. London: Croom Helm, 1978.

Schultz, T.P. Fertility Patterns and Their Determinants in the Arab Middle East. (Rand Abstract, RM-5978-FF.) Santa Monica: Rand, 1970.

Shahgaldian, Nikola B. "Sectarian Politics and the Islamic Challenge in Syria," Middle East Insight, 4, No. 2, 1984, 20-29.

Sharabi, Hisham. "Islam and Modernization in the Arab World." Pages 26-36 in Jack H. Thompson and Robert D. Reischauer (eds.), Modernization of the Arab World. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1966.

Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. Islam in Modern History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Spears, Edward Louis. Fulfillment of. Mission. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 1977.

Sweet, Louise. (ed.). The Central Middle East:. Handbook of Anthropology.. vols. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, 1968.

________. "A Day in. Syrian Peasant Household." Pages 99-104 in Ailon Shiloh (ed.), Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1969.

________. Tell Toqaan:. Syrian Village. (Anthropological Paper No. 14.) Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1960.

"Syria." Pages 179-85 in David Tarr (ed.), The Middle East. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1986.

Syria. Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor Statistical Division. The Annual Statistical Bulletin of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor, 22. Damascus: 1984.

Syria. Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Abstract, 38, Damascus: 1985.

Tibawi, A.L.. Modern History of Syria, Including Lebanon and Palestine. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1969.

United Kingdom. Admiralty. Naval Intelligence Division. Syria. (Geographical Handbook Series.) London: 1943.

Van Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O. Social Stratification and the Middle East. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1965.

Zeine, Zeine N. The Struggle for Arab Independence. Delmar, New York: Caravan, 1977.

Zeltzer, Moshe. "Minorities in Iraq and Syria." Pages 10-50 in Ailon Shiloh (ed.), Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1969.

Zenner, Walter P. "Syrian Jews in Three Social Settings," Jewish Journal of Sociology [London], 10, No. 1, 1968, 101-20.

Chapter 3

Al-Ahsan, Syed Aziz. "Economic Policy and Class Structure in Syria, 1958-1980," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16, August 1984, 301-23.

Amin, Samir. Irak et Syrie, 1960-1980. Paris: Editions de minuit, 1982.

Askari, Hossein, and John T. Cummings. Middle East Economics in the 1970s:. Comparative Approach. (Praeger Special Studies in International Economics and Development.) New York: Praeger, 1976.

Beaumont, Peter. "The Euphrates River -- An International Problem of Water Resources Development," Environmental Conservation, 5, Spring 1978, 35-44.

Carr, David W. "Capital Flows and Development in Syria," Middle East Journal, 34, No. 4, 1980, 455-64.

Central Bank of Syria. Quarterly Bulletin. 23. Nos. 1-4, Damascus: 1985.

El-Akhrass, Hisham. Syria and the CGIAR Centers. Washington: World Bank, 1986.

Evans, Robert B. Cotton in Syria. Washington: Washington Foreign Agricultural Service, 1978.

Firro, Kais. "The Syrian Economy under the Assad Regime," Pages 36-68 in Moshe Ma'oz and Avner Yaniv (eds.), Syria under Assad, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.

Gottheil, Fred. "Iraqi and Syrian Socialism: An Economic Appraisal," World Development, 9, September-October 1981, 825-37.

Hannoyer, Jean. Etat et secteur publique industriel en Syrie. (Beirut: Centre d'études et de recherches sur le Moyen-Orient Contemporain). Lyon: Presses universitaires de Lyon, 1979.

________. "Grands projets hydrauliques en Syrie," Maghreb- Machrek, [Paris], No. 109, July-September 1985, 24-42.

Hansen, Brent. "Economic Development of Syria." Pages 330-67 in Charles A. Cooper and Sidney S. Alexander (eds.), Economic Development and Population Growth in the Middle East. New York: American Elsevier, 1972.

Himadeh, Said B. Economic Organization of Syria. New York: AMS Press, 1973.

Hinnebusch, Raymond A. "Rural Politics in Ba'thist Syria:. Case Study in the Role of the Countryside in the Political Development of Arab Societies," Review of Politics, 44, 1982, 110-30.

International Labour Organization. The Syrian Arab Republic: Project Findings and Recommendations. Geneva: United Nations Development. Programme, International Labour Organisation, 1982.

________. Economic Development of Syria. Tel Aviv: David Horowitz Institute for the Research of Developing Countries, 1975.

International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook. Washington: 1986.

________. Balance of Payment Statistics Yearbook, Parts. and 2. Washington: 1985.

Kanovsky, Eliyahu. Economic Development of Syria. Tel Aviv: David Horowitz Institute for the Research of Developing Countries, 1975.

________. The Economic Development of Syria. Tel Aviv: University Publishing Projects, 1977.

________. "What's Behind Syria's Current Economic Problems?" Pages 280-347 in Haim Shaked and Daniel Dishon (eds.), Middle East Contemporary Survey, 7, 1983-84 Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, 1986.

Keilany, Ziad. "Land Reform in Syria," Middle Eastern Studies, 16, October 1980, 209-24.

________. "Socialism and Economic Change in Syria," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 9, No. 1, January 1973, 61- 72.

Khader, Bichara. La question agraire dans les pays Arabes. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1984.

Longuenesse, Elizabeth. "The Syrian Working Class Today." Pages 17-24 in MERIP Reports, No. 15. Washington: Middle East Research and Information Project, July-August 1985.

________. "Syrie: secteur public industriel, les enjeux d'une crise," Maghreb-Machrek, [Paris], No. 109, July- September 1985, 5-23.

Manners, Ian R., and Tagi Sagafi-Nejad. "Agricultural Development in Syria." Pages 255-78 in P. Beaumont and K. McLachlan (eds.), Agricultural Development in the Middle East. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1985.

"Manpower and Employment Planning in Iraq and the Syrian Arab Republic." Pages 22-44 in Studies on Development Problems in Countries of Western Asia, 1975. New York: United Nations, 1977.

Métral, Françoise. "Etat et paysans dans le Ghab en Syrie: approche locale d'un projet d'état," Maghreb- Machrek [Paris], No. 109, July-September, 43-63.

Sayigh, Yusif A. The Economics of the Arab World: Developments since 1945. London: Croom Helm, 1978.

Syria. Arab Office for Press Documentation. Fifth Five Year Economic and Social Development Plan of the Syrian Arab Republic, 1981-1985. Damascus: 1981.

Syria. Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The Annual Agricultural Statistical Abstract, 1981. Damascus: 1982.

________. The Annual Agricultural Statistical Abstract 1982. Damascus: 1983.

Syria. Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Abstract, 1968. 21, Damascus: 1969.

_______ Statistical Abstract, 1976, 29, Damascus: 1977.

_______ Statistical Abstract, 1979, 32, Damascus: 1980.

_______ Statistical Abstract, 1985, 38, Damascus: 1985.

_______ Statistical Abstract, 1986, 39, Damascus: 1986.

United States. Agency for International Development. Syria: Agricultural Sector Assessment.. vols. Washington: 1980.

United States. Syria Agricultural Sector Assessment, Vol 1. Washington: 1980.

Wilson, Rodney. Development Planning in the Middle East: The Impact of Foreign Influences. London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1983.

World Bank. The Economic Development of Syria. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955.

Chapter 4

Abd-Allah, Umar F. The Islamic Struggle in Syria. Berkeley: Mizan Press, 1983.

Adams, Michael. "The Arab-Israeli Confrontation, 1967-77." Pages 35-49 in The Middle East and North Africa, 1977-78. London: Europa, 1977.

Amnesty International. Report from Amnesty International to the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic. London: November 1983.

Babikian, N. Salem. "A Partial Reconstruction of Michel Aflaq's Thought: The Role of Islam in the Formation of Arab Nationalism," Muslim World, 67, No. 4, October 1977, 280-94.

Bar-Simon-Tov, Yaacov. Linkage Politics in the Middle East: Syria Between Domestic and External Conflict, 1961- 1970. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983.

Batatu, Hanna. "Some Observations on the Social Roots of Syria's Ruling Military Group and the Causes for Its Dominance," Middle East Journal, 35, No. 3, Summer 1981, 331- 44.

Ben-Dor, Gabriel. Political Participation under Military Regimes. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1976.

Burrowes, Robert, and Gerald DeMaio. "Domestic/External Linkages: Syria, 1961-1967," Comparative Political Studies, 7, No. 4, January 1975, 478-507.

Cass, Alain. "Syria." Pages 332-42 in Middle East Annual Review, 1976. Saffron Walden, United Kingdom: 1976.

Cooley, John K. "Shifting Sands of Arab Communism," Problems of Communism, 24, March-April 1975, 22-42.

Dawisha, Adeed I. "The Motives of Syria's Involvement in Lebanon," Middle East Journal, 38, No. 2, Spring 1984, 228-36.

________. Syria and the Lebanese Crisis. London: Macmillan, 1980.

________. "Syria under Assad, 1970-78: The Centers of Power," Government and Opposition [London], 13, No. 3, Summer 1978, 341-54.

Devlin, John F. The Ba'th Party:. History from Its Origins to 1966. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1976.

________. "The Political Structure in Syria," Middle East Review, 17, No. 1, Fall 1984, 15-21.

________. "Syria: Consistency at Home and Abroad," Current History, 85, No. 508, February 1986, 67-70, 84-85.

________. Syria: Modern State in an Ancient Land. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983.

Drysdale, Alasdair. "The Succession Question in Syria," Middle East Journal, 39, No. 2, Spring 1985, 246- 57.

________. "The Asad Regime and Its Troubles." Pages 3-11 in MERIP Reports, No. 110. Washington: Middle East Research and Information Project, November-December 1982.

Ehrnman, Bruce. "Syria and the United States: The Awkward Relationship," Middle East Insight, 4, No. 5, 1986, 14-20.

Faksh, Mahmud A. "The Alawi Community of Syria:. New Dominant Political Force," Middle Eastern Studies, 20, No. 2, April 1984, 133-53.

________. "The Military and Politics in Syria: The Search for Stability," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 8, Spring 1985, 3-21.

Freedman, Robert O. "Moscow, Damascus, and the Lebanese Crisis of 1982-1984," Middle East Review, 17, No. 1, Fall 1984, 22-39.

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Chapter 5

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Last Updated: April 1987


Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Syria was first published in 1991. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on Factba.se.

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