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Turkey: Table A. Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms
Country Study > Chapter 1 > Historical Setting > Table A. Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms


1922 - Sultanate abolished (November 1).

1923 - Treaty of Lausanne secured (July 24).

1923 - Republic of Turkey with capital at Ankara proclaimed (October 29).

1924 - Caliphate abolished (March 3).

1924 - Traditional religious schools closed, seriat abolished. Constitution adopted (April 20).

1925 - Dervish brotherhoods abolished.

1925 - Fez outlawed by the Hat Law (November 25). Veiling of women discouraged; Western clothing for men and women encouraged.

1925 - Western (Gregorian) calendar adopted.

1926 - New civil, commercial, and penal codes based on European models adopted. New civil code ended Islamic polygamy and divorce by renunciation and introduced civil marriage.

1926 - Millet system ended.

1927 - First systematic census.

1928 - New Turkish alphabet (modified Latin form) adopted. State declared secular (April 10); constitutional provision establishing Islam as official religion deleted.

1933 - Islamic call to worship and public readings of the Kuran (Quran) required to be in Turkish rather than Arabic.

1934 - Women given the vote and the right to hold office.

1934 - Law of Surnames adopted -- Mustafa Kemal given the name Kemal Atatürk (Father Turk) by the Grand National Assembly; Ismet Pasha took surname of Inönü.

1935 - Sunday adopted as legal weekly holiday.

1935 - State role in managing economy written into the constitution.

Data as of January 1995

Last Updated: January 1995

Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Turkey was first published in 1995. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on

Turkey Main Page Country Studies Main Page

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