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Turkey: Bibliography
Country Study > Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Chapter 1

Ahmad, Feroz. The Making of Modern Turkey. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Ahmad, Feroz. The Turkish Experiment in Democracy, 1950-1975. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977.

Ahmad, Feroz. The Young Turks: The Committee of Union and Progress in Turkish Politics, 1908-1911. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Alderson, Anthony D. The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Anderson, Perry. Lineages of the Absolutist State. London: New Left Books, 1974.

Arfa, Hassan. The Kurds: An Historical and Political Study. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Armstrong, Harold C. Gray Wolf: The Life of Kemal Atatürk. (Epilogue by Emil Lengyel.) New York: Capricorn, 1969.

Atil, Esin. The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. New York: Abrams, 1987.

Babinger, Franz. Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. (Bollingen Series, No. 96.) Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Barchard, David. Turkey and the West. (Chatham House Papers, No. 27, published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.

Batu, Hâmit, and Jean-Louis Bacqué-Grammont, eds. L'Empire Ottoman, la république de Turquie et la France. Istanbul: Isis, 1986.

Berberoglu, Berch. Turkey in Crisis: From State Capitalism to Neo-Colonialism. London: Zed Press, 1982.

Bianchi, Robert. Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Bodurgil, Abraham. Turkey: Politics and Government,. Bibliography, 1938-1975. Washington: Library of Congress, 1978.

Bodurgil, Abraham, comp. Kemal Atatürk:. Centennial Bibliography (1881-1981). Washington: Library of Congress, 1984.

Bölükbasi, Süha. The Superpowers and the Third World: Turkish-American Relations and Cyprus. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1988.

Bournoutian, George A.. History of the Armenian People. 1. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda, 1993.

Braude, Benjamin, and Bernard Lewis, eds. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of. Plural Society. (2 vols.) New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

Bridge, Antony. Süleiman the Magnificent: Scourge of Heaven. London: Granada, 1983.

Brummett, Palmira. Ottoman Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discovery. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Burton, J.A. "Relations Between the Khanate of Bukhara and Ottoman Turkey, 1558-1702," International Journal of Turkish Studies. 5, 1990-91, 83-103.

Cahen, Claude. Pre-Ottoman Turkey. New York: Taplinger, 1968.

Campany, Richard C., Jr. Turkey and the United States: The Arms Embargo Period. New York: Praeger, 1986.

Cemal, Pasa. Memories of. Turkish Statesman, 1913-1919. New York: Arno Press, 1973.

çiçek, Kemal. "Living Together: Muslim-Christian Relations in 18th-Century Cyprus as Reflected by the Shari'a Court Record," Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations [Birmingham, United Kingdom], 4, No. 1, 1993.

Cook, M.A., ed.. History of the Ottoman Empire to 1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Davison, Roderic H. Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856-1876. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Davison, Roderic H. Turkey:. Short History. (2d ed.) Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1988.

DeLuca, Anthony R. The Great Power Rivalry at the Turkish Straits: The Montreux Conference and the Convention of 1936. (East European Monographs.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.

Devereux, Robert. The First Ottoman Constitutional Period. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963.

Dodd, Clement H., ed. The Political, Social, and Economic Development of Northern Cyprus. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1993.

Dodd, Clement H., ed. Turkish Foreign Policy: New Prospects. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1992.

Ertekün, Necati M. The Cyprus Dispute and the Birth of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Nicosia, Northern Cyprus: Rustem, 1984.

Evin, Ahmet, ed. Modern Turkey: Continuity and Change. (Schriften des Deutschen Orient-Instituts.) Oplanden, West Germany: Leske and Budrich, 1984.

Farah, Caesar E., ed. Decision Making and Change in the Ottoman Empire. Kirksville, Missouri: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1993.

Faroqhi, Suraiya. Men of Modest Substance: House Owners and House Property in 17th-Century Ankara and Kayseri. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Findley, Carter V. Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789-1922. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Findley, Carter V. Ottoman Civil Officialdom:. Social History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Finkel, Andrew, and Nükhet Sirman, eds. Turkish State, Turkish Society. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Frangakis-Syrett, Elena. The Commerce of Smyrna in the Eighteenth Century, 1700-1820. Athens: Center for Asia Minor Studies, 1992.

Frazee, Charles A. Catholics and Sultans: The Church and the Ottoman Empire, 1453-1923. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Frey, Frederick W. The Turkish Political Elite. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1965.

Geyikdagi, Mehmett Yasar. Political Parties in Turkey: The Role of Islam. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Göçek, Fatma Müge. East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Goffman, Daniel. Izmir and the Levantine World, 1550-1650. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.

Gökalp, Ziya. The Principles of Turkism. Trans., Robert Devereux. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1968.

Gunter, Michael M. The Kurds in Turkey:. Political Dilemma. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.

Gunter, Michael M. "Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People":. Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Hale, William M. The Political and Economic Development of Modern Turkey. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981.

Halley, Laurence. Ancient Affections: Ethnic Groups and Foreign Policy. New York: Praeger, 1985.

Harris, George S. Turkey: Coping with Crisis. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.

Hart, Parker T. Two NATO Allies at the Threshold of War -- Cyprus:. Firsthand Account of Crisis Management, 1965-1968. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1990.

Heper, Metin. "Islam, Polity, and Society in Turkey:. Middle Eastern Perspective," Middle East Journal. 35, No. 3, Summer 1981, 345-63.

Heper, Metin. The State Tradition in Turkey. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1985.

Heper, Metin, and Ahmet Evin, eds. State, Democracy, and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s. New York: de Gruyter, 1988.

Heper, Metin, and Jacob M. Landau, eds. Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey. New York: Tauris, 1991.

Heyd, Uriel. Foundations of Turkish Nationalism: The Life and Teachings of Ziya Gökalp. London: Luzac, 1950.

Heyd, Uriel. "The Later Ottoman Empire in Rumelia and Anatolia." Pages 354-73 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Holt, P.M. "The Later Ottoman Empire in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent." Pages 274-92 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Howard, Harry N. The Partition of Turkey:. Diplomatic History, 1913-1923. New York: Ferig, 1966.

Inalcik, Halil. "The Emergence of the Ottomans." Pages 263-73 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Inalcik, Halil. "The Heyday and Decline of the Ottoman Empire." Pages 324-53 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Inalcik, Halil. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300-1600. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973.

Inalcik, Halil. The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Organization, and Economy. London: Variorum, 1978.

Inalcik, Halil. "The Rise of the Ottoman Empire." Pages 293-323 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Islamoglu-Inan, Huri, ed. The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Issawi, Charles. The Economic History of Turkey, 1800-1914. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Jennings, Ronald C. Christians and Muslims in Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean World, 1571-1640. New York: New York University Press, 1993.

Karpat, Kemal H. "The Memoirs of N. Batzaria: The Young Turks and Nationalism," International Journal of Middle East Studies. 6, No. 3, July 1975, 276-99.

Karpat, Kemal H. "The Military and Politics in Turkey, 1960-64:. Socio-Cultural Analysis of. Revolution," American Historical Review. 75, No. 6, October 1970, 1654-83.

Karpat, Kemal H. "Modern Turkey." Pages 527-65 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Karpat, Kemal H. "Political Developments in Turkey, 1950-70," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 8, No. 3, October 1972, 349-75.

Karpat, Kemal H. "The Transformation of the Ottoman State, 1789-1908," International Journal of Middle East Studies. 3, No. 3, July 1972, 243-81.

Karpat, Kemal H. Turkey's Politics: The Transition to. Multi-Party System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959.

Karpat, Kemal H. "Turkish Democracy at Impasse: Ideology, Party Politics, and the Third Military Intervention," International Journal of Turkish Studies. 2, No. 1, Spring-Summer 1981, 1-43.

Karpat, Kemal H., ed. Political and Social Thought in the Contemporary Middle East. New York: Praeger, 1968.

Kasaba, Resat. "Izmir," Review. 16, No. 4, 1993, 387-410.

Kasaba, Resat. The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy: The 19th Century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

Kazancigil, Ali, and Ergün özbudun, eds. Atatürk: Founder of. Modern State. London: Hurst, 1981.

Keyder, çaglar. "Port Cities in the Ottoman Empire: Some Theoretical and Historical Perspectives," Review. 16, No. 4, 1993, 519-58.

Kinross, Patrick Balfour. Atatürk:. Biography of Mustafa Kemal, Father of Modern Turkey. New York: Morrow, 1965.

Kinross, Patrick Balfour. The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow, 1977.

"Kurdistan in Turkey." Pages 38-94 in Gerard Chaliand, ed.,. People Without. Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. London: Zed Books, 1993.

Landau, Jacob M. "The Nationalist Action Party in Turkey," Journal of Contemporary History [London], 17, No. 4, October 1982, 587-606.

Landau, Jacob M. Pan-Turkism in Turkey:. Study of Irredentism. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1981.

Landau, Jacob M., ed. Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984.

Levy, Aviador. The Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton: Darwin Press and Washington: Institute of Turkish Studies, 1992.

Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. (2d ed.) New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Lewis, Bernard. Studies in Classical and Ottoman Islam: 7th-16th Centuries. London: Variorum, 1976.

Lewis, Geoffrey. Modern Turkey. New York: Praeger, 1974.

Lewis, Raphaela. Everyday Life in Ottoman Turkey. New York: Putnam, 1971.

Lindner, Rudi Paul. Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. (Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983.

Lloyd, Seton. Early Turkey:. Traveller's History of Anatolia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Macfie, A.L. "The Straits Question in the First World War, 1914-18," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 19, No. 1, January 1983, 43-74.

Mackenzie, Kenneth. Turkey under the Generals. (Conflict Studies, No. 126.) London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1981.

Mango, Andrew. Turkey: The Challenge of. New Role. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1994.

Marcus, Aliza. "Turkey's Kurds after the Gulf War:. Report from the Southeast." Pages 238-47 in Gerard Chaliand, ed.,. People Without. Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. London: Zed Books, 1993.

Mardin, Serif A. The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.

Mellaart, James. "Anatolia and the Indo-Europeans," Journal of Indo-European Studies. 9, Spring-Summer 1981, 135-49.

Mellaart, James. Ancient Turkey. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield, 1978.

Nawawi, Mohammad A. "The Political-Economic Ideas and Achievements of the Kemalist Revolution:. Tentative Evaluation," International Journal of Turkish Studies. 2, No. 2, Winter 1981-82, 1-14.

Olson, Robert. The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989.

Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. (Rev. ed.) New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1969.

özay, Mehmet. "Turkey in Crisis: Some Contradictions in the Kemalist Development Strategy," International Journal of Middle East Studies. 15, No. 1, February 1983, 47-66.

Ozbudun, Ergun. The Role of the Military in Recent Turkish Politics. (Occasional Papers in International Affairs, No. 14.) Cambridge: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1966.

Parla, Taha. The Social and Political Thought of Ziya Gökalp, 1876-1924. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1985.

Pitcher, Donald E. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1972.

Quataert, Donald. Ottoman Manufacturing in the Age of the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Ramazanoglu, Huseyin. Turkey in the World Capitalist System:. Study of Industrialization, Power, and Class. Brookfield, Vermont: Gower, 1985.

Robins, Philip. Turkey and the Middle East. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1991.

Runciman, Steven. Byzantine Style and Civilization. Baltimore: Penguin, 1975.

Runciman, Steven. The Great Church in Captivity:. Study of the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the Eve of the Turkish Conquest to the Greek War of Independence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Runciman, Steven.. History of the Crusades. (3 vols.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951-54.

Rustow, Dankwart A. Turkey: America's Forgotten Ally. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1987.

Schick, Irvin Cemal, and Ertugrul Ahmed Tonak, eds. Turkey in Transition: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Shaw, Stanford J. The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and Turkish Empire. New York: New York University Press, 1991.

Shaw, Stanford J., and Ezel Kural Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. (2 vols.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Singer, Morris. "Atatürk's Economic Legacy," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 19, No. 3, July 1983, 301-11.

Sousa, Nasim. The Capitulatory Regime of Turkey: Its History, Origin, and Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1957.

Swanson, Glen W. "Enver Pasha: The Formative Years," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 16, No. 4, October 1980, 193-99.

Szyliowicz, Joseph S. "The Ottoman Empire." Pages 102-21 in C.A.O. van Nieuwenhuijze, ed., Commoners, Climbers, and Notables:. Sampler of Studies on Social Ranking in the Middle East. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1977.

Tachau, Frank. Turkey: The Politics of Authority, Democracy, and Development. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Tachau, Frank, and Metin Heper. "The State, Politics, and the Military in Turkey," Comparative Politics. 16, No. 1, October 1983, 17-33.

Tapper, Richard, ed. Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in. Secular State. London: Tauris, 1991.

Turan, Osman. "Anatolia in the Period of the Seljuks and the Beyliks." Pages 231-62 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Van Bruinessen, Martin. Agha, Shaikh, and State: The Social and Political Structures of Kurdistan. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Zed Books, 1992.

Volkan, Vamik D., and Norman Itzkowitz. The Immortal Atatürk:. Psychobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Webster, Donald Everett. The Turkey of Atatürk: Social Process in the Turkish Reformation. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1939.

Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Atatürk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1981.

Weiker, Walter F. The Turkish Revolution, 1960-61: Aspects of Military Politics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Zürcher, Erik J. Turkey:. Modern History. New York: Tauris, 1994.

Chapter 2

Abadan-Unat, Nermin. Women in the Developing World: Evidence from Turkey. Denver: University of Denver Press, 1986.

Ahmad, Feroz. The Making of Modern Turkey. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Akin, Erkan, and Omer Karasapan. "Turkey's Tarikats," Middle East Report. No. 153, July-August 1988, 16-18.

Akin, Erkan, and Omer Karasapan. "The `Turkish-Islamic Synthesis'," Middle East Report. No. 153, July-August 1988, 12-15, 50.

Aksit, Bahattin. "Islamic Education in Turkey: Medrese Reform in Late Ottoman Times and Imam-Hatip Schools in the Republic." Pages 145-70 in Richard Tapper, ed., Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in. Secular State. London: Tauris, 1991.

Arat, Yesim. "Islamic Fundamentalism and Women in Turkey," Muslim World. 80, No. 1, 1990, 17-23.

Arat, Yesim. The Patriarchal Paradox: Women Politicians in Turkey.

Rutherford, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1989.

Balim, çigdem, Ersin Kalaycioglu, Cevat Karatas, Gareth Winrow, and Feroz Yasamee, eds. Turkey: Political, Social, and Economic Challenges in the 1990s. New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.

Berik, Gunseli. "State Policy in the 1980s and the Future of Women's Rights in Turkey," New Perspectives on Turkey. No. 4, 1990, 81-96.

Berik, Gunseli. Women Carpet Weavers in Rural Turkey: Patterns of Employment, Earnings, and Status. Geneva: International Labour Organisation, 1987.

Bozarslan, Hamit. "Political Aspects of the Kurdish Problem in Contemporary Turkey." Pages 98-113 in Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Stefan Sperl, eds., The Kurds:. Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge, 1992.

Cagli, U., and L. Durukan. "Sex Role Portrayals in Turkish TV Advertising: Some Preliminary Findings," Middle East Technical University Studies in Development [Ankara], 16, Nos. 1-2, 1989, 153-75.

Cragg, Kenneth. The Call of the Minaret. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Delaney, Carol. The Seed and the Soil: Gender and Cosmology in Turkish Village Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

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Eralp, Atila, Muharrem Tunay, and Birol Yesilda. The Political and Socioeconomic Transformation of Turkey. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1993.

Gulalp, Haldun. "Islam and Postmodernism," Contention. 4, No. 2, Winter 1995, 59-70.

Gulalp, Haldun. "A Postmodern Reaction to Dependent Modernization: The Social and Historical Roots of Islamic Radicalism," New Perspectives on Turkey. No. 8, Fall 1992, 15-26.

Gursoy-Tezcan, Akile. "Mosque or Health Centre?. Dispute in. Gecekondu." Pages 84-101 in Richard Tapper, ed., Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in. Secular State. London: Tauris, 1991.

Hassanpour, Amir. "The Kurdish Experience," Middle East Report. No. 189, July-August 1994, 2-7, 23.

Held, Colbert. Middle East Patterns, Places, Peoples, and Politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1989.

Kadioglu, Ayse. "Women's Subordination in Turkey: Is Islam Really the Villain?" Middle East Journal. 48, No. 4, 1994, 645-60.

Kagitcibasi, Cigdem, ed. Sex Roles, Family, and Community in Turkey. Bloomington: Indiana University Turkish Studies, 1982.

Kandiyoti, Deniz. "Sex Roles and Social Change:. Comparative Appraisal of Turkey's Women," Signs:. Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 3, No. 1, 1977, 57-73.

Kieser, Hans-Lukas. Les Kurdes alevis face au nationalisme turc kemaliste: L'alevite du Dersim et son rôle dans le premier soulèvement kurde contre Mustafa Kemal, Kockiri, 1919-1921. (Occasional Paper No. 18.) Amsterdam: Middle East Research Associates, 1993.

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. "On the Kurdish Language." Pages 68-83 in Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Stefan Sperl, eds., The Kurds:. Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge, 1992.

Kutschera, Chris. "Mad Dreams of Independence: The Kurds of Turkey and the PKK," Middle East Report. No. 189, July-August 1994, 12-15.

Marcus, Aliza. "City in the War Zone," Middle East Report. No. 189, July-August 1994, 16-19.

Mardin, Serif A. "Religion in Modern Turkey," International Social Science Journal. 29, No. 2, 1977, 279-97.

Meeker, Michael. "The New Muslim Intellectuals in the Republic of Turkey." Pages 189-222 in Richard Tapper, ed., Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in. Secular State. London: Tauris, 1991.

Migdalovitz, Carol. "Turkey: Ally in. Troubled Region." (Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 93-835F.) Washington: September 14, 1993.

Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Pamuk, Sevket. "War, State Economic Policies, and Resistance by Agricultural Producers in Turkey, 1939-1945." Pages 125-42 in Farhad Kazemi and John Waterbury, eds., Peasants and Politics in the Modern Middle East. Miami: Florida International University Press, 1991.

Ramazanoglu, Huseyin. Turkey in the World Capitalist System:. Study of Industrialization, Power, and Class. Brookfield, Vermont: Gower, 1985.

Renda, Gunsel, and C. Max Kortepeter, eds., The Transformation of Turkish Culture: The Ataturk Legacy. Princeton: Kingston Press, 1986.

Stokes, Martin. "Music, Fate, and State: Turkey's Arabesque Debate," Middle East Report. No. 160, September-October 1989, 27-30.

Tapper, Richard, ed. Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in. Secular State. London: Tauris, 1991.

"Turkey." Pages 907-25 in Middle East and North Africa, 1995. London: Europa, 1994.

United States. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1994. (Report submitted to United States Congress, 104th, 1st Session, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, and House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs.) Washington: GPO, 1995.

Van Bruinessen, Martin. Agha, Shaikh, and State: The Social and Political Structure of Kurdistan. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Zed Books, 1992.

Van Bruinessen, Martin. "Kurdish Society, Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Refugee Problems." Pages 35-65 in Philip Kreyenbroek and Stefan Sperl, eds., The Kurds:. Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge, 1992.

Van Bruinessen, Martin. "The Kurds Between Iran and Iraq," Middle East Report. No. 141, July-August 1986.

Watt, W. Montgomery. Islamic Political Thought: Basic Concepts. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1968.

Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.

White, Jenny B. "Linking the Urban Poor to the World Market: Women and Work in Istanbul," Middle East Report. No. 173, November-December 1991, 18-22.

White, Jenny B. Money Makes Us Relatives: Women's Labor in Urban Turkey. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Yalcin-Hekmann, Lale. "Ethnic Islam and Nationalism Among the Kurds in Turkey." Pages 102-20 in Richard Tapper, ed., Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in. Secular State. London: Tauris, 1991.

Chapter 3

Abac, Selcuk, et al. Turkey's Banks and Banking System. London: Euromoney, 1986.

Alireza, Bulent, and Nathaniel Kern. "Turkey: The New Player in the World of Oil," Petroleum Politics. 5, No. 2, 1994.

Aresvik, Oddvar. The Agricultural Development of Turkey. (Praeger Special Studies in International Economics and Development.) New York: Praeger, 1975.

Aricanli, Ali Tousun, and Dani Rodrik, eds. The Political Economy of Turkey: Debt, Adjustment, and Sustainability. New York: Macmillan, 1990.

Arslan, Ismail, and Sweder van Wijnbergen. "Export Incentives, Exchange Rate Policy, and Export Growth in Turkey," Review of Economics and Statistics. 75, No. 1, February 1993, 128-33.

Balassa, Bela. "Outward Orientation and Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries: The Turkish Experience." Pages 208-35 in Bela Balassa, ed., Change and Challenge in the World Economy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985.

Balim, çigdem, Ersin Kalaycioglu, Cevat Karatas, Gareth Winrow, and Feroz Yasamee, eds. Turkey: Political, Social, and Economic Challenges in the 1990s. New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.

Barchard, David. Turkey and the West. (Chatham House Papers, No. 27, published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.

Baysan, Tercan. "Some Economic Aspects of Turkey's Accession to the EC: Resource Shifts, Comparative Advantage, and Static Gains," Journal of Common Market Studies [Oxford], 23, September 1984, 15-34.

Beeley, Brian W. "Progress in Turkish Agriculture." Pages 289-301 in Peter Beaumont and Keith McLachlan, eds., Agricultural Development in the Middle East. New York: Wiley, 1985.

Bilginsoy, Cihan. "Inflation, Growth, and Import Bottlenecks in the Turkish Manufacturing Industry," Journal of Development Economics [North Holland], 42, 1993, 111-31.

Celasun, M., and Dani Rodrik. "Debt, Adjustment, and Growth: Turkey." In J. Sachs, ed., Developing Countries' Debt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

çiller, Tansu. "The Economics of Exporting Labour to the EEC:. Turkish Perspective." Pages 173-85 in Elie Kedourie, ed., The Middle Eastern Economy. London: Cass, 1976.

Connelly, A. Daniel. "Black Sea Economic Cooperation," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 3, No. 26, July 1, 1994, 31-38.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-95. London: 1994.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Quarterly Economic Review of Turkey. (Annual Supplement, 1994.) London: 1994.

Eralp, Atila, Muharrem Tunay, and Birol Yesilada. The Political and Socioeconomic Transformation of Turkey. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1993.

"Financial Times Survey -- Turkey," Financial Times [London], May 21, 1992, 1-8.

"Financial Times Survey -- Turkey," Financial Times [London], May 7, 1993, 1-8.

"Financial Times Survey -- Turkey," Financial Times [London], April 15, 1994, 1-8.

Griffin, Keith B. Land Concentration and Rural Poverty. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1976.

Hale, William M. "The Traditional and the Modern in the Economy of Kemalist Turkey: The Experience of the 1920s." Pages 153-70 in Jacob M. Landau, ed., Ataturk and the Modernization of Turkey. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984.

Herschlag, Zvi Yehuda. "Ataturk's Etatism." Pages 171-80 in Jacob M. Landau, ed., Ataturk and the Modernization of Turkey. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984.

Karpat, Kemal H. The Gecekondu: Rural Migration and Urbanization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Kasnakoglu, Haluk. "Agricultural Price Support Policies in Turkey: An Empirical Investigation." Pages 131-57 in Alan Richards, ed., Food, States, and Peasants: Analyses of the Agrarian Question in the Middle East. (Westview Special Studies on the Middle East.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1986.

Korars, John. "The Hydro-Imperative of Turkey's Search for Energy," Middle East Journal. 40, No. 1, Winter 1986, 53-67.

Krawczk, Lynn. "Turkey: Land of Potential and Problems," Foreign Agriculture. December 5, 1977, 10-12.

Krueger, Anne O. Turkey. (Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development Series.) New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1974.

Krueger, Anne O., and Okan H. Aktan. Swimming Against the Tide: Turkish Trade Reform in the 1980s. (International Center for Economic Growth.) San Francisco: ICS Press, 1992.

Mideast Newswire. "Europe, Turkey Set To Seal Customs Union Deal," March 3, 1995.

Nas, F.T., and Mehmet Odekon, eds. Liberalization and the Turkish Economy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Okyar, Osman. "Development Background of the Turkish Economy, 1923-1973," International Journal of Middle East Studies. 10, August 1979, 325-44.

Onis, Ziya, and James Riedel. Economic Crises and Long-Term Growth in Turkey. (Comparative Macroeconomic Studies.) Washington: World Bank, 1993.

Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1991-92. Paris: 1994.

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Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995. Paris: 1995.

Ozbudun, Ergun, and Aydin Ulusan, eds. The Political Economy of Income Distribution in Turkey. (The Political Economy of Income Distribution in Developing Countries, No. 1.) New York: Holmes and Meier, 1980.

Parvin, Manoucher, and Mukerrem Hic. "Land Reform Versus Agricultural Reform: Turkish Miracle or Catastrophe Delayed?" International Journal of Middle East Studies. 16, May 1984, 207-32.

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"Survey of Turkey's South East Anatolian Project," Financial Times [London], July 24, 1992, 8, 10.

"Survey of Turkish Finance and Industry," Financial Times [London], November 25, 1993.

"Survey of Turkish Finance and Industry," Financial Times [London], November 3, 1994.

"Survey of Turkish Finance, Investment, and Industry," Financial Times [London], November 18, 1992.

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Chapter 4

Abramowitz, Morton. "Dateline Ankara: Turkey after Ozal," Foreign Policy. No. 91, 1993, 164-81.

Ahmad, Feroz. "Islamic Reassertion in Turkey, Third World Quarterly. 10, No. 2, April 1988, 764-68.

Ahmad, Feroz. The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Routledge, 1993.

Ahmad, Feroz. "Military Intervention in Turkey," MERIP Reports. No. 93, January 1981, 5-24.

Ahmad, Feroz. "Politics and Islam in Modern Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies [London], 27, No. 1, January 1991, 3-21.

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Akin, Erkan, and Omer Karasapan. "Turkey's Tarikats," Middle East Report. No. 153, July-August 1988, 16-18.

Amnesty International. Turkey: Torture, Extrajudicial Executives, and "Disappearances ." London: 1992.

Aricanli, Ali Tosun, and Dani Rodrik, eds. The Political Economy of Turkey: Debt, Adjustment, and Sustainability. New York: Macmillan, 1990.

Aybet, Gülnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West:. Turkish Perspective. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.

Bahcheli, Tozun. Greek-Turkish Relations since 1955. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.

Balim, çigdem, Ersin Kalaycioglu, Cevat Karatas, Gareth Winrow, and Feroz Yasamee, eds. Turkey: Political, Social, and Economic Challenges in the 1990s. New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.

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Bianchi, Robert. Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Bilici, Faruk. "Sociabilité et expression politique islamistes en Turquie: Les nouveaux vakifs ," Revue française de science politique [Paris], 43, No. 3, June 1993, 412-34.

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Birand, Mehmet Ali. Shirts of Steel: An Anatomy of the Turkish Armed Forces. London: Tauris, 1991.

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Bölükbasi, Süha. "Ankara, Damascus, Baghdad, and the Regionalization of Turkey's Kurdish Secessionism," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. 14, No. 4, June 1991, 15-36.

Bölükbasi, Süha. "Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and the Euphrates Dam," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. 16, No. 4, June 1993, 9-32.

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Danielson, Michael N., and Rusen Keles. The Politics of Rapid Urbanization: Government and Growth in Modern Turkey. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985.

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Dodd, Clement H., ed. Turkish Foreign Policy: New Prospects. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1992.

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Fuller, Graham E., Ian O. Lesser, Paul B. Henze, and J.F. Brown. Turkey's New Geopolitics: From the Balkans to Western China. (A Rand Study.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993.

Gunter, Michael M. The Kurds in Turkey:. Political Dilemma. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.

Harris, George S. Turkey: Coping with Crisis. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.

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Heper, Metin. "The Recalcitrance of the Turkish Public Bureaucracy to `Bourgeois Politics': Multi-Factor Political Stratification Analysis," Middle East Journal. 39, No. 4, Autumn 1976, 492-96.

Heper, Metin, ed. Local Government in Turkey: Governing Greater Istanbul. London: Routledge, 1989.

Heper, Metin, ed. Strong State and Economic Interest Groups: The Post-1980 Turkish Experience. New York: de Gruyter, 1991.

Heper, Metin, and Ahmet Evin, eds. Politics in the Third Turkish Republic. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1988.

Heper, Metin, and Ahmet Evin, eds. State, Democracy, and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s. New York: de Gruyter, 1988.

Heper, Metin, and Jacob M. Landau, eds. Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey. New York: Tauris, 1991.

Johnstone, Diana. "Turkey's Other NATO Link," Middle East Report. No. 160, September-October 1989, 17-18.

Karasapan, Omer. "Turkey and US Strategy in the Age of Glasnost," Middle East Report. No. 160, September-October 1989, 4-10, 22.

Kemal, Ahmet. "Military Rule and the Future of Democracy in Turkey," MERIP Reports. No. 122, March-April 1984, 12-15.

Keyder, Caglar. State and Class in Turkey:. Study in Capitalist Development. New York: Verso, 1987.

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Kutschera, Chris. "Mad Dreams of Independence: The Kurds of Turkey and the PKK," Middle East Report. No. 189, July-August 1994, 12-15.

Laber, Jeri, and Lois Whitman. Destroying Ethnic Identity: The Kurds of Turkey, An Update. New York: Helsinki Watch Committee, March 1988.

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MacDonald, Scott B. "Turkey's 1991 Elections: Democracy Renewed or the Past Revisited?" Middle East Insight. 8, No. 3. January-February 1992, 25-30.

MacDonald, Scott B., and Amy Kaslow. "From Crisis to Cautious Recovery: Middle Eastern Economies after the Gulf War, Part II," Middle East Insight. 8, No. 6, July-October 1992, 64-69.

Magnarella, Paul. "Desecularization, State Corporatism, and Development in Turkey," Journal of Third World Studies. 6, No. 2, 1989, 32-49.

Marcus, Aliza. "City in the War Zone," Middle East Report. No. 189, July-August 1994, 16-19.

Mardin, Serif A. Religion and Social Change in Modern Turkey: The Case of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Margulies, Ronnie, and Ergin Yildizoglu. "The Political Uses of Islam in Turkey," Middle East Report. No. 153, July-August 1988, 12-17.

Margulies, Ronnie, and Ergin Yildizoglu. "Trade Unions and Turkey's Working Class," MERIP Reports. No. 121, February 1984, 15-20, 31.

Migdalovitz, Carol. "Turkey: Ally in. Troubled Region." (Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 93-835F.) Washington: September 14, 1993.

Onis, Ziya. "Privatization and the Logic of Coalition Building," Comparative Political Studies. 24, July 1991, 231-53.

Pevsner, Lucille, W. Turkey's Political Crisis: Background, Perspectives, and Prospects. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Pope, Hugh. "Turkey at the Crossroads," Middle East International [London], No. 454, July 9, 1993, 12-13.

Pope, Hugh. "Turkey: Radical New Message," Middle East International [London], No. 480, July 22, 1994, 13.

Robins, Philip. "Between Sentiment and Self-Interest: Turkey's Policy toward Azerbaijan and the Central Asian States," Middle East Journal. 47, No. 4, Autumn 1993, 593-610.

Robins, Philip. Turkey and the Middle East. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs and New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1991.

Rouleau, Eric. "The Challenges to Turkey," Foreign Affairs. 72, No. 5, November-December 1993, 110-26.

Salamé, Ghassan. "Torn Between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean: Europe and the Middle East in the Post-Cold War Era," Middle East Journal. 48, No. 2, Spring 1994, 226-49.

Sayari, Sabri. "Turkey: The Changing European Security Environment and the Gulf Crisis," Middle East Journal. 46, No. 1, Winter 1992, 9-21.

Schick, Irvin Cemil, and Ahmet Ertugrul Tonak, eds. Turkey in Transition: New Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Sezer, Duygu Bazoglu. "State and Society in Turkey: Continuity and Change?" (Paper presented at Rand's 1992 Middle East Conference, Transformations of State and Society in the Middle East.) Santa Monica, California: 1993.

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Tachau, Frank. Turkey: The Politics of Authority, Democracy, and Development. New York: Praeger, 1984.

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Chapter 5

Amnesty International. Amnesty International Report, 1993. New York: 1994.

Amnesty International. Turkey: Dissident Voices Jailed Again. New York: 1993.

Aris, Hakki. "A New Era in SSM Activities," Military Technology [Bonn], 17, No. 3, February 1994, 85-89.

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Barraclough, Colin. "The Kurds:. Fire in Turkey's Underbelly," Insight. 9, No. 43, October 25, 1993, 6-11.

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Last Updated: January 1995


Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Turkey was first published in 1995. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on Factba.se.

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