Content

SEND US FEEDBACK


We're always looking for ways to make Geoba.se better. Have an idea? See something that needs fixing? Let us know!

Turkmenistan: Bibliography
Country Study > Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Chapter 1

Adshead, Samuel Adrian M. Central Asia in World History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

Akiner, Shirin. Islamic Peoples of the Soviet Union: An Historical and Statistical Handbook. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1986.

Akiner, Shirin, ed. Economic and Political Trends in Central Asia. New York: Routledge. Kegan Paul, 1992.

Allworth, Edward, ed. Central Asia: 120 Years of Russian Rule. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.

Allworth, Edward, ed. Muslim Communities Reemerge: Historical Perspectives. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994.

Bachmann, Berta. Memories of Kazakhstan:. Report on the Life Experiences of. German Woman in Russia. Lincoln, Nebraska: American History Society, 1983.

Bacon, Elizabeth E. Central Asians under Russian Rule:. Study in Culture Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Banuazizi, Ali, and Myron Weiner, eds. The New Geopolitics of Central Asia and Its Borderlands. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Bilan du Monde: l'Année économique et sociale 1995. Ed., Jacques-François Simon. Paris: Le Monde, 1996.

Blank, Stephen. "Energy, Economics, and Security in Central Asia: Russia and Its Rivals," Central Asian Survey. 14, No. 3, 1995, 373-406.

Bradley, Catherine. Kazakhstan. Brookfield, Connecticut: Millbrook Press, 1992.

Brezhnev, Leonid. Virgin Lands: Two Years in Kazakhstan, 1954-55. Tarrytown, New York: Elsevier Science, 1982.

Broxup, Marie. "Islam in Central Asia since Gorbachev," Asian Affairs [London], 18, October 1987, 283-93.

Carrère D'Encausse, Hélène. Islam and the Russian Empire: Reform and Revolution in Central Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

"Central Asia," Current History. 93, April 1994, 145-86.

Dave, Bhavna. "Kazakhstan Staggers under Its Nuclear Burden," Transition. November 17, 1995, 12-13.

Dave, Bhavna. "A New Parliament Consolidates Presidential Authority," Transition. March 22, 1996, 33-37.

Davis, Christopher M. "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 35-43.

Dawisha, Karen, and Bruce Parrott. Russia and the New States of Eurasia: The Politics of Upheaval. Port Chester, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Deweese, Devin. Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994.

Diuk, Nadia, and Adrian Karatnycky. The Hidden Nations: The People Challenge the Soviet Union. Fairfield, New Jersey: William Morrow, 1990.

Dorian, James P. "The Kazakh Oil Industry:. Potential Critical Role in Central Asia," Energy Policy. 22, August 1994, 685-98.

Eickelman, Dale F., ed. Russia's Muslim Frontiers: New Directions in Cross-Cultural Analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

The Europa World Year Book 1993. 2. London: Europa, 1993.

The Europa World Year Book 1994. 2. London: Europa, 1994.

The Europa World Year Book 1995. 2. London: Europa, 1995.

The Europa World Year Book 1996. 2. London: Europa, 1996.

Evans, John L. Russia and the Khanates of Central Asia to 1865. New York: Associated Faculty Press, 1982.

Ferdinand, Peter. The New States of Central Asia and Their Neighbours. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Fierman, William, ed. Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Forsythe, Rosemarie. "The Politics of Oil in the Caucasus and Central Asia," Adelphi Papers. 300, May 1996, whole issue.

Fuller, Graham. Central Asia: The New Geopolitics. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 1992.

Fuller, Graham. "Central Asia: The Quest for Identity," Current History. 93, April 1994, 145-49.

Fuller, Graham. "The Emergence of Central Asia," Foreign Policy. Spring 1990, 49-67.

Ghorban, Narsi. "The Role of the Multinational Oil Companies in the Development of Oil and Gas Resources in Central Asia and the Caucasus," Iranian Journal of International Affairs. 5, Spring 1993, 1-15.

Gross, Jo-Ann, ed. Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Haghayeghi, Mehrdad. Islam and Politics in Central Asia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Janabel, Jiger. "When National Ambition Conflicts with Reality: Studies on Kazakhstan's Ethnic Relations," Central Asian Survey. 15, No. 1, March 1996, 5-22.

Malik, Hafeez, ed. Central Asia: Its Strategic Importance and Future Prospects. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Mandelbaum, Michael, ed. Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Mesbahi, Mohiaddin, ed. Central Asia and the Caucasus after the Soviet Union: Domestic and International Dynamics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

The Military Balance 1992-1993. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1992.

The Military Balance 1993-1994. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1993.

The Military Balance 1994-1995. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1994.

The Military Balance 1995-1996. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995.

1995 Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: 1995.

Olcott, Martha Brill. "Central Asia's Islamic Awakening," Current History. 93, April 1994, 150-54.

Olcott, Martha Brill. Central Asia's New States: Independence, Foreign Policy, and Regional Security. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.

Olcott, Martha Brill. The Kazakhs. 2d ed. Studies of Nationalities in the USSR. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1995.

Paksoy, H.B., ed. Central Asia Reader: The Rediscovery of History. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

PlanEcon. Review and Outlook for the Former Soviet Republics. Washington: 1995.

Pomfret, Richard. The Economies of Central Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Potter, William C. "The 'Sapphire' File: Lessons for International Nonproliferation Cooperation," Transition. 1, November 17, 1995, 14-19.

Ro'i, Yaacov, ed. Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Rumer, Boris Z. Soviet Central Asia: "A Tragic Experiment." Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Rywkin, Michael. Moscow's Muslim Challenge: Soviet Central Asia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1992-1993. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1993-1994. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1994-1995. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1995-1996. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Undeland, Charles, and Nicholas Platt. The Central Asian Republics: Fragments of Empire, Magnets of Wealth. New York: Asia Society, 1994.

United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Demographic Yearbook 1993. New York: 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Kazakhstan: An Economic Profile. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1993.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.

United States. Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters. International Narcotics Strategy Report March 1996. Washington: GPO, 1996.

WEFA Group. Eurasia Economic Outlook, February 1996. Eddystone, Pennsylvania: 1996.

Wixman, Ronald. Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1984.

World Bank. Kazakhstan: Agricultural Sector Review. Washington: 1994.

World Bank. Kazakhstan: The Transition to. Market Economy. Washington: 1993.

World Bank. Statistical Handbook 1995: States of the Former USSR. Washington: 1995.

World Radio TV Handbook 1996. Ed., Andrew G. Sennitt. Amsterdam: Billboard, 1996.

Worldwide Directory of Defense Authorities 1996. 1. Ed., Kenneth Gause. Bethesda, Maryland: Worldwide Government Directories, 1996.

Chapter 2

Adshead, Samuel Adrian M. Central Asia in World History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

Akchurin, Marat. "Soviet Muslims: Seeking Reform, Not Revolution," World and. , 6, October 1991, 86-93.

Akiner, Shirin. Islamic Peoples of the Soviet Union: An Historical and Statistical Handbook. New York: Routledge, 1986.

Akiner, Shirin, ed. Central Asia: 130 Years of Russian Dominance, an Historical Overview. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994.

Akiner, Shirin, ed. Economic and Political Trends in Central Asia. New York: Routledge. Kegan Paul, 1992.

Allworth, Edward, ed. Central Asia: 120 Years of Russian Rule. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.

Alptekin, Erkin. "Chinese Policy in Eastern Turkestan," Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs Journal. 13, January 1992, 185-95.

Andreyev, Nikolai. "Central Asia: From Marx to Mohammed," New Times International [Moscow], No. 39, 1992, 19-22.

Andreyev, Nikolai. "What Future for Uzbekistan, Kirgizia, Turkmenia?" Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. 44, July 22, 1992, 8-11.

Aziz, Sartaj. "The Rediscovery of Central Asia," Economics Review [Karachi], 23, June 1992, 15-17.

Baldick, Julian. Imaginary Muslims: The Uwaysi Sufis of Central Asia. Irvington: New York University Press, 1994.

Banuazizi, Ali, and Myron Weiner, eds. The New Geopolitics of Central Asia and Its Borderlands. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Baumann, Robert F. Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, 1993.

Bourdeaux, Michael, ed. The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Brown, Bess. "Central Asia: The First Year of Unexpected Statehood," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 1, January 1, 1993, 25-36.

Brown, Bess. "Three Central Asian States Form Economic Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 3, No. 11, April 1, 1994, 33-35.

"Central Asia: Five-State Commonwealth Set Up," Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. 45, February 3, 1993, 1-8.

"Central Asia: Patterns of Change, Past, Present, and Future," Harvard International Report. 15, Spring 1993, 6-12.

Clark, Susan L. Security in Russia and Eurasia: The New National Militaries and Emerging Defense Policies. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995.

Davis, Christopher M. "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 35-43.

Dawisha, A.I., and Karen Dawisha, eds. The Foreign Policy Interests of Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Dawisha, Karen, and Bruce Parrott. Russia and the New States of Eurasia: The Politics of Upheaval. Port Chester, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Deweese, Devin. Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994.

Dienes, Leslie. "Economic Geographic Relations in the Post-Soviet Republics," Post-Soviet Geography. 34, October 1993, 497-529.

Diller, Daniel C., ed. Russia and the Independent States. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

Doolotaliyev, S. "Some Issues in the Development of the Sary-Dzhaz Mining Industrial Center, Kirghiz SSR," Sovetskaya Geografiya. 30, May 1989, 371-4.

Eickelman, Dale F., ed. Russia's Muslim Frontiers: New Directions in Cross-Cultural Analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Elebayeva, Aynur B. "The Osh Incident: Problems for Research," Post-Soviet Geography. 33, February 1992, 78-86.

The Europa World Year Book 1994. 2. London: Europa, 1994.

The Europa World Year Book 1995. 2. London: Europa, 1995.

The Europa World Year Book 1996. 2. London: Europa, 1996.

Evans, John L. Russia and the Khanates of Central Asia to 1865. New York: Associated Faculty Press, 1982.

Ferdinand, Peter. The New States of Central Asia and Their Neighbors. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Fierman, William, ed. Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Fuller, Graham. Central Asia: The New Geopolitics. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 1992.

Furtado, Charles F., and Henry R. Huttenback, eds. "The Ex-Soviet Nationalities Without Gorbachev," Nationalities Papers. 20, Fall 1992, 1-124.

Gleason, Gregory. "The Political Economy of Dependency under Socialism: The Asian Republics in the USSR," Studies in Comparative Communism. 24, December 1991, 335-53.

Goron, Leonard, and Alex Pravda, eds. Who's Who in Russia and the New States. London: I.B. Tauris, 1993.

Gross, Jo-Ann, ed. Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Haghayeghi, Mehrdad. Islam and Politics in Central Asia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Henze, Paul B. Whither Turkestan? Santa Monica, California: Rand, 1992.

Hostler, Charles Warren. The Turks of Central Asia. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1993.

Kaiser, Robert J. The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Karasik, Theodore. Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 1993.

Kedzie, Christopher R. Stumbling Blocks and Stepping Stones: The Crossing from Soviet Domination to Self Rule in the Republics of Central Asia. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 1994.

Landau, Jacob M. Pan-Turkism: From Irredentism to Cooperation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Lipski, Andrei. "The Community of Central Asia: Inside or Outside the CIS?" International Affairs [Moscow], October 1993, 51-5.

Maier, Frith. Trekking in Russia and Central Asia:. Traveler's Guide. Seattle: Mountaineers Books, 1994.

Malik, Hafeez, ed. Central Asia: Its Strategic Importance and Future Prospects. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Mandelbaum, Michael, ed. Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Manz, Beatrice F., ed. Central Asia in Historical Perspective. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1994.

Martin, Keith. "Environment: Central Asia's Forgotten Tragedy," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 3, No. 29, July 29, 1994, 35-48.

Mesbahi, Mohiaddin, ed. Central Asia and the Caucasus after the Soviet Union: Domestic and International Dynamics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

Migranyan, Andranik. "Russia and the Near Abroad," Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. 47, March 9, 1994, 1-4 and March 16, 1994, 6-11.

The Military Balance 1993-1994. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1993.

The Military Balance 1994-1995. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1994.

The Military Balance 1995-1996. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995.

Naumkin, Vitaly. State, Religion, and Society in Central Asia:. Post-Soviet Critique. London: Ithaca Press, 1993.

Olcott, Martha Brill. Central Asia's New States: Independence, Foreign Policy, and Regional Security. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.

Paksoy, G.B., ed. Central Asia Reader: The Rediscovery of History. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

Pilkington, John. "Kyrgyzstan:. Tale of Two Journeys," Geographical Magazine. 65, April 1993, 8-12.

Pipes, Daniel. "The Politics of the 'Rip Van Winkel' States: The Southern Tier States of the Ex-Soviet Union Have Moved the Borders of the Middle East North," Middle East Insight. 10, November-December 1993, 30-40.

PlanEcon. Review and Outlook for the Former Soviet Republics. Washington: 1995.

Pryde, Ian. "Kyrgyzstan: Secularism vs. Islam," World Today. 48, November 1992, 208-11.

Pryde, Ian. "Kyrgyzstan: The Trials of Independence," Journal of Democracy. 5, January 1994, 109-20.

Rashid, Ahmed. The Resurgence of Central Asia: Islam or Nationalism? Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Ro'i, Yaacov, ed. Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Rotor, Igor. "Kyrgyzstan: Capitalist Experiment in Central Asia," Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. 44, April 8, 1992, 4-5.

Rumer, Boris Z. Soviet Central Asia: "A Tragic Experiment." Winchester, Massachusetts: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Shlapentokh, Vladimir, Munir Sendich, and Emil Payin, eds. The New Russian Diaspora: Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

Shome, Parthasarathi, and Julio Escolano. "The State of Tax Policy in the Central Asian and Transcaucasian Newly Independent States," Bulletin of International Fiscal Documentation. 48, April 1994, 159-66.

Shukurov, E., ed. Discovery of Kyrghyzstan. Bishkek: International Foundation "A Discovery of Kyrghyzstan," 1993.

Sparks, John. Realms of the Russian Bear:. Natural History of Russia and the Central Asian Republics. Waltham, Massachusetts: Little Brown, 1992.

Starr, S. Frederick, ed. The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1993-1994. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1994-1995. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1995-1996. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Szporluk, Roman, ed. National Identity and Ethnicity in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

Thomas, Paul. The Central Asian States: Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan. Brookfield, Connecticut: Millbrook Press, 1992.

United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Demographic Yearbook 1994. New York: 1996.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters. International Narcotics Strategy Report March 1996. Washington: GPO, 1996.

WEFA Group. Eurasia Economic Outlook February 1996. Eddystone, Pennsylvania: 1996.

Wixman, Ronald. Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1984.

World Bank. Kyrgyzstan: Social Protection in. Reforming Economy. Washington: 1993.

World Bank. Kyrgyzstan: The Transition to. Market Economy. Washington: 1993.

World Bank. Kyrgyz Republic: Agricultural Sector Review. Washington: 1995.

World Bank. Kyrgyz Republic: Economic Report. Washington: 1994.

World Bank. Kyrgyz Republic: Energy Sector Review. Washington: 1995.

World Bank. Kyrgyz Republic: National Environmental Action Plan. Washington: 1995.

World Bank. Kyrgyz Republic: Poverty Assessment and Strategy. Washington: 1995.

World Bank. Statistical Handbook 1995: States of the Former USSR. Washington: 1995.

World Radio TV Handbook 1996. Ed., Andrew G. Sennitt. Amsterdam: Billboard, 1996.

Worldwide Directory of Defense Authorities, 1996. 1. Ed., Kenneth Gause. Bethesda, Maryland: Worldwide Government Directories, 1996.

Chapter 3

Akademiya nauk SSSR. Institut etnografii. Sotsial'no-kul'turnyy oblik sovetskikh natsiy (The Social-Cultural Aspect of the Soviet Nations). Moscow: Nauka, 1986.

Akademiya nauk Tadzhikskoy SSR. Istoriya tadzhikskogo naroda (A History of the Tajik People), 3. Moscow: Nauka, 1965.

Akademiya nauk Tadzhikskoy SSR. Tadzhikistan: priroda. resursy. Tajikistan: Nature and Resources). Dushanbe: Donish, 1982.

Akademiya nauk Tadzhikskoy SSR. Tadzhikskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic). Ed., M.S. Asimov. Dushanbe: 1974.

Allworth, Edward, ed. Central Asia:. Century of Russian Rule. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.

Allworth, Edward, ed. The Nationality Question in Soviet Central Asia. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Amnesty International. Tadzhikistan. London: 1993.

Andreyev, M.S. "Po etnografii tadzhikov: Nekotoryye svedeniya" (On the Ethnography of the Tajiks: Some Information). Pages 151-77 in Tadzhikistan. Tashkent: Obshchestvo dlya izucheniya Tadzhikistana. iranskikh narodnostey za yego predelami, 1925.

Atkin, Muriel. "Islamic Assertiveness and the Waning of the Old Soviet Order," Nationalities Papers. 20, No. 1, Spring 1992, 55-72.

Atkin, Muriel. "Religious, National, and Other Identities in Central Asia." Pages 46-72 in Jo Ann Gross, ed., Muslims in Central Asia. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Atkin, Muriel. The Subtlest Battle: Islam in Soviet Tajikistan. Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, 1989.

Atkin, Muriel. "The Survival of Islam in Soviet Tajikistan," Middle East Journal. 43, No. 4, Autumn 1989, 605-18.

Atkin, Muriel. "Tajikistan: Ancient Heritage, New Politics." Pages 361-83 in Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds., Nation and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Bacon, Elizabeth. Central Asians under Russian Rule. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Bartol'd, Vasilii Vladimirovich. Histoire des Turcs d'Asie centrale. Trans., M. Donskis. Philadelphia: Porcupine Press, 1977.

Bartol'd, Vasilii Vladimirovich. Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion. London: Lazac, 1968.

Becker, Seymour. "National Consciousness and the Politics of the Bukharan People's Counciliar Republic." Pages 159-67 in Edward Allworth, ed., The Nationality Question in Soviet Central Asia. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Becker, Seymour. Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865-1924. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968.

Bourdeaux, Michael, ed. The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Bremmer, Ian, and Ray Taras, eds. Nation and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Canfield, Robert L., ed. Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Carrère d'Encausse, Hélène. Réforme et révolution chez les Musulmans de l'Empire russe. Paris: Librarie Armand Colin, 1966.

Corbin, Henry. "Nasir-i Khusrau and Iranian Isma'ilism." Pages 520-42 in Richard N. Frye, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Davis, Christopher M. "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 35-43.

Drobizheva, L.M. "Kul'tura. mezhnatsional'yye otnosheniya. SSSR" (Culture and Inter-national Relations in the USSR), Voprosy istorii [Moscow], 1979, No. 11, 3-15.

Dzharylgasimova, R.Sh., and L.S. Tolstova, eds. Etnicheskiye protsessy. natsional'nykh grupp Sredney Azii. Kazakhstana (Ethnic Processes in the National Groups of Central Asia and Kazakstan). Moscow: Nauka, 1980.

Entsiklopediyai sovetii Tojik (Soviet Tajik Encyclopedia). Dushanbe: Sarredaktsiyai ilmii entsiklopediyai sovetii Tojik, 1978-1987.

The Europa World Year Book 1994. 2. London: Europa, 1994.

The Europa World Year Book 1995. 2. London: Europa, 1995.

The Europa World Year Book 1996. 2. London: Europa, 1996.

Fedorova, T.I. Goroda Tadzhikistana. problemy rosta. razvitiya (Cities of Tajikistan and Problems of Growth and Development). Dushanbe: Irfon, 1981.

Feshbach, Murray, and Alfred Friendly, Jr. Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

The FirstBook [sic] of Demographics for the Republics of the Former Soviet Union, 1951-1990. Shady Side, Maryland: New World Demographics, 1992.

Freidin, Gregory. "Coup II," The New Republic. 205, No. 16, October 14, 1991, 16-18.

Frye, Richard N. Bukhara: The Medieval Achievement. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Frye, Richard N. "The Samanids." Pages 136-61 in Richard N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Frye, Richard N., ed. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Gleason, Gregory. "The Struggle for Control over Water in Central Asia: Republican Sovereignty and Collective Action." RFE/RL Report on the USSR [Munich], 3, No. 25, June 21, 1991, 11-19.

Gretsky, Sergei. "Civil War in Tajikistan and Its International Repercussions," Critique. Spring 1995, 3-24.

Gretsky, Sergei. "Qadi Akbar Turajonzoda," Central Asia Monitor. 1994, No. 1, 16-24.

Gretsky, Sergei. "Russia and Tajikistan." Pages 231-51 in A.Z. Rubinstein and O.M. Smolansky, eds. Regional Power Rivalries in the New Eurasia: Russia, Turkey, and Iran. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Grousset, Rene. The Empire of the Steppes. Trans., N. Walford. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.

Hambly, Gavin, ed. Central Asia. New York: Delacorte Press, 1969.

Helsinki Watch. Conflict in the Soviet Union. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991.

Hitchins, Keith. "Modern Tajik Literature." Pages 454-75 in E. Yarshater, ed., Persian Literature. Albany: Bibliotheca Persica, 1988.

Hooson, David. The Soviet Union: People and Regions. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1966.

Istoriya kul'turnogo stroitel'stva. Tadzhikistane, 1917-1977 gg (The History of Cultural Construction in Tajikistan, 1917-1977, 2.) Dushanbe: Donish, 1983.

Karasik, Theodore, ed. USSR Facts and Figures Annual 1992. Gulf Breeze, Florida: Academic International Press, 1992.

Kojaoglu, T. "The Existence of. Bukharan Nationality in the Recent Past." Pages 151-8 in Edward Allworth, ed., The Nationality Question in Soviet Central Asia. New York: Praeger, 1973.

"Konflikt na granitse Kirgizii. Tadzhikistana" (Conflict on the Border of Kyrgyzia and Tajikistan), Turkestan [Ashgabat], 1990, No. 1, 5.

Korsunskiy, L. "Podzemnyy atomnyy gulag deystvuyet" (An Underground Atomic Gulag Is in Operation). Stolitsa [Moscow] 1992, No. 35, 22-6.

Krader, Lawrence. Peoples of Central Asia. Uralic and Altaic Series, No. 26. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963.

The Military Balance 1993-1994. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1993.

The Military Balance 1994-1995. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1994.

The Military Balance 1995-1996. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995.

Monogarova, L.F. "Evolyutsiya natsional'nogo samosoznaniya pripamirskikh narodnostey" (The Evolution of National Self-Awareness of the Pamiri Peoples). Pages 125-35 in Etnicheskiye protsessy. natsional'nykh grupp Sredney Azii. Kazakhstana. Moscow: Nauka, 1980.

Nahaylo, Bohdan, and Viktor Swoboda. Soviet Disunion. New York: The Free Press, 1990.

"Natsional'nyy vopros. mezhnatsional'nyye otnosheniya. SSSR: Istoriya. sovremennost'" (The National Question and Inter-national Relations in the USSR: History and the Present). Voprosy istorii. 1989, No. 5, 3-97.

1995 Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: 1995.

Olcott, Martha Brill. "The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan 1918-1924," Soviet Studies. 33, No. 3, July 1981, 352-69.

Park, A.G. Bolshevism in Turkestan, 1917-1927. New York: Columbia University Press, 1957.

Pierce, Richard A. Russian Central Asia, 1867-1917. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.

Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa. Russia and Nationalism in Central Asia: The Case of Tadzhikistan. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.

Rubinstein, Alvin Z., and Oles M. Smolansky, eds. Regional Power Rivalries in the New Eurasia: Russia, Turkey, and Iran. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Rubin, Barry M. "The Fragmentation of Tajikistan," Survival. 35, No. 4, Winter 1993-1994, 71-91.

Rumer, Boris Z. Soviet Central Asia: "A Tragic Experiment." Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

"Russia: World Drugs Capital?" The Economist Foreign Report. April 27, 1995, 3-4.

Sharipov, I. Zakonomernosti formirovaniya sotsialisticheskikh obshchestvennykh otnosheniy. Tadzhikistane (The Regularity of the Formation of Socialist Social Relations in Tajikistan). Dushanbe: Donish, 1983.

Shukurov, Maksud Rakhmatullayevich. Kul'turnaya zhizn' Tadzhikistana (The Cultural Life of Tajikistan). Dushanbe: Irfon, 1980.

Simon, Gerhard. Nationalism and Policy Toward the Nationalities in the Soviet Union. Trans., K. Forster and O. Forster. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Smirnov, Yu. "Strannyy Islam" (Strange Islam), Pamir. No. 2, 1988, 104-25.

Soviet Union. Central Statistical Administration. Chislennost'. sostav naseleniy SSSR (Size and Composition of the Populations of the USSR). Moscow: Finansy. statistika, 1984.

Soviet Union. State Committee on Statistics. Chislennost' naseleniya soyuznykh respublik po gorodskim poseleniyam. rayonam (Size of the Population of the Union Republics by Urban Settlement and District). Moscow: Informatsionno-izdatel'skiy tsentr Goskomstata SSSR, 1991.

Soviet Union. State Committee on Statistics. Demograficheskiy yezhegodnik SSSR 1990 (Demographic Yearbook of the USSR 1990). Moscow: Finansy. statistika, 1990.

Soviet Union. State Committee on Statistics. Soyuznyye respubliki: Osnovnyye ekonomicheskiye. sotsial'nyye pokazateli (The Union Republics: Basic Economic and Social Indicators). Moscow: Informatsionno-izdatel'skiy tsentr Goskomstata SSSR, 1991.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1994-1995. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1995-1996. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Symon, L. "Tadzhikistan:. Developing Country in the Soviet Union," Asian Affairs. 61, pt. 3, October 1974, 249-56.

Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou. "Causes and Consequences of the Civil War," Central Asia Monitor. 1993, No. 1, 10-14.

Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou. "The 'Tajik Spring' of 1992," Central Asia Monitor. No. 2, 1993, 21-9.

Tadzhikistan. Tashkent: Obshchestvo dlya izucheniya Tadzhikistana. iranskikh narodnostey za yego predelami, 1925.

Tajik SSR. Supreme Soviet. Presidium. "Soobshcheniye komissii Prezidiuma Verkhovnogo Soveta Tadzhikskoy SSR po proverke sobytiy 12-14 fevralya 1990 g.. Dushanbe" (Report of the Commission of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR on Examining the Events of February 12-14, 1990, in Dushanbe), Sogdiana [Dushanbe],1990. No. 3, entire issue.

United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Demographic Yearbook 1993. New York: 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Congress. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report on the Helsinki Commission Visit to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. Washington: GPO, 1992.

United States. Congress. 103d, 2d Session. House of Representatives. Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East. Prepared testimony of Holly Burkhalter of Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, Sept. 22, 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Congress. 103d, 2d Session. House of Representatives. Subcommittee on International Security, International Operations, and Human Rights. Testimony from Pamela B. Cohen, National President, and Micah H. Naftalin, National Director of the Union of Councils, April 26, 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters. International Narcotics Strategy Report March 1996. Washington: GPO, 1996.

Veselovskiy, Vladimir Glebovich, et al. Arkhitektura sovetskogo Tadzhikistana (The Architecture of Soviet Tajikistan). Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1987.

Vinnikov, Ya. R. "Natsional'nyye. etnograficheskiye gruppy Sredney Azii po dannym etnicheskoy statistiki" (The National and Ethnographic Groups of Central Asia According to Ethnic Statistical Data). Pages 11-42 in R. Sh. Dzharylgasimova and L.S. Tolstova, eds., Etnicheskiye protsessy. natsional'nykh grupp Sredney Azii. Kazakhstana. Moscow: Nauka, 1980.

Wheeler, Geoffrey. The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia. New York: Praeger, 1964.

World Bank. Statistical Handbook 1995: States of the Former USSR. Washington: 1995.

World Radio TV Handbook 1996. Ed., Andrew G. Sennitt. Amsterdam: Billboard: 1996.

Worldwide Directory of Defense Authorities. 2. Ed., Kenneth Gause. Bethesda, Maryland: Worldwide Government Directories, 1996.

Wright, R. "Report from Turkestan," New Yorker. April 6, 1992, 53-75.

Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. Persian Literature. Albany: Bibliotheca Persica, 1988.

Chapter 4

Ahmed, Akbar, and David Hart, eds. Islam in Tribal Societies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.

Allworth, Edward, ed. Central Asia: 120 Years of Russian Rule. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.

Anderson, John. "Authoritarian Political Development in Central Asia: The Case of Turkmenistan," Central Asian Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 14, No. 4, 1995, 509-28.

Bacon, Elizabeth. Central Asians under Russian Rule:. Study in Culture Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Bartol'd, Vasilii Vladimirovich. "A History of the Turkman People (An Outline)." Pages 73-170 in Four Studies on the History of Central Asia III. Trans., V. and T. Minorsky. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1962.

Barylski, Robert V. "The Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Near-Abroad Syndrome," Central Asia Monitor, No. 4, 1993, 31.

Basilov, Vladimir Nikolayevich. "Honor Groups in Traditional Turkmenian Society." Pages 220-43 in Akbar Ahmed and David Hart, eds., Islam in Tribal Societies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.

Basilov, Vladimir Nikolayevich. "Popular Islam in Central Asia and Kazakhstan," Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs. 8, No. 1, 1987, 7-17.

Batalden, Stephen K., and Sandra L. Batalden. The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics. Phoenix: Oryx, 1993.

Becker, Seymour. Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865-1924. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968.

Bennigsen, Alexandre. Mystics and Commissars: Sufism in the Soviet Union. London: Hurst, 1985.

Bennigsen, Alexandre, and S. Enders Wimbush. Muslims of the Soviet Empire. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Berdi Murat, Aman. "Turkmenistan and the Turkmen." Pages 262-82 in Zev Katz, ed., Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities. New York: Free Press, 1975.

Bregel, Yuriy. "The Peoples of Southern Turkmenistan and Khorasan in the 17th and 18th Centuries," Central Asian Review. 8, No. 3, 1960, 264-72.

Bregel, Yuriy. "Nomadic and Sedentary Elements among the Turkmens," Central Asiatic Journal. 25, Nos. 1-2, 1981, 5-37.

Canfield, Robert, ed. Turco-Persia in Historical Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Chalidze, F. "Aral Sea Crisis:. Legacy of Soviet Rule," Central Asia Monitor. 1992, No. 1, 30-34.

Clark, Susan L. "The Central Asian States: Defining Security Priorities and Developing Military Forces." Pages 177-206 in Michael Mandelbaum, ed., Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Commonwealth of Independent States. Statistical Committee. Strany-chleny Sodruzhestva nezavisimykh gosudarstv: Statisticheskiy. ezhegodnik (The Member Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States:. Statistical Yearbook). Moscow: Finansovyy inzhiniring, 1992.

Davis, Christopher M. "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 35-43.

Demidov, Sergey Mikhaylovich. Istoriya religioznykh verovaniy narodov Turkmenistana (A History of the Religious Faiths of Turkmenistan). Ashgabat: Ylym, 1990.

Durdyyev, Marat, and Shukhrat Kadyrov. Turkmeny mira (Turkmen of the World). Ashgabat: Kharp, 1991.

Dzhikiyev, Ata. Ocherki proiskhozhdeniya. formirovaniya turkmenskogo naroda. epokhu srednovekov'ya (Essays on the Origin and Formation of the Turkmen People in the Middle Ages). Ashgabat: Ylym, 1991.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Report: Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Central Asian Republics. London: 1994.

Ellis, C.H. The Transcaspian Episode, 1918-1919. London: Hutchinson, 1963.

Encyclopedia Iranica. 5. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda, 1990.

The Europa World Year Book 1993. 2. London: Europa, 1993.

The Europa World Year Book 1994. 2. London: Europa, 1994.

The Europa World Year Book 1995. 2. London: Europa, 1995.

The Europa World Year Book 1996. 2. London: Europa, 1996.

Farmayan, Hafez. "Turkoman Identity and Presence in Iran," Iran. 4, Summer 1981, 45-63.

Feldman, Walter. "Interpreting the Poetry of Makhtumquli." Pages 167-89 in Jo-Ann Gross, ed., Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Feshbach, Murray, and Alfred Friendly, Jr. Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Friedman, L. "Ethnic and National Composition of Population in Newly Independent Countries of the Middle East and Caucasus," Central Asia Today. 1993, No. 1, 56-60.

Geldiyev, B., S.P. Tokarev, and T. Sakhatliyev. Razvitiye promyshlennosti Turkmenistana za 50 let (The Development of Industry in Turkmenistan over 50 Years). Ashgabat: Turkmenistan, 1974.

Gleason, Gregory. "Central Asia: Land Reform and the Ethnic Factor," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 3, 1993, 28-33.

Gleason, Gregory. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz, 1992.

Goetz, Roland, and Uwe Halbach. Informationen über eine unbekannte Republik, I-II. Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien. Cologne: 1995.

Howard, G. "The Caspian Oil and Gas Oasis: Turkmenistan," Russian Oil and Gas Guide. 3, No. 1, 1994, 54-58.

International Monetary Fund. Economic Review: Turkmenistan. Washington: 1992.

International Monetary Fund. Turkmenistan. Washington: 1994.

Irons, William. "The Turkmen of Iran:. Brief Research Report," Iranian Studies. 2, Winter 1969, 27-38.

Irons, William. The Yomut Turkmen:. Study of Social Organization among. Central Asian Turkic-Speaking Population. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1975.

Istoriya Turkmenskoy SSR (History of the Turkmen SSR). Ashgabat: Akademiya nauk Turkmenskoy SSR, 1957.

Jane's Sentinel Regional Security Assessment: Commonwealth of Independent States. Ed., Paul Beaver. Coulsdon, United Kingdom: Jane's Information Group, 1994.

Kaiser, Robert J. The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Katz, Zev, ed. Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities. New York: Free Press, 1975.

Keller, S. "Islam in Soviet Central Asia, 1917-1930: Soviet Policy and the Struggle for Control," Central Asian Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 11, No. 1, 1992, 25-50.

Khrushchev, Anatoliy Timofeyevich, and O.D. Chuvilkin. "Resursy gaza gosudarstv Tsentral'noy Azii: Ekonomiko-geograficheskiye aspekty" (Gas Resources of the States of Central Asia: Economic-Geographic Aspects), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta: Geografiya [Moscow], 1994, No. 4, 51-57.

Kirpichenko, V. "Khozyaystvennyye svyazi stran-chlenov SNG" (Economic Relations of CIS Member States). Ekonomist [Moscow], 1993, No. 4, 53-62.

Krader, Lawrence. Peoples of Central Asia. Uralic and Altaic Series, No. 26. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1963.

Maksudov, Sergey. "On Infant Mortality in Turkmenistan," Central Asia Monitor. 1992, No. 1, 26-30.

Mandelbaum, Michael, ed. Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Mesbahi, Mohiaddin, ed. Central Asia and the Caucasus after the Soviet Union: Domestic and International Dynamics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

Micklin, Phillip P. The Water Management Crisis in Soviet Central Asia. The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies, No. 905. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.

The Military Balance 1993-1994. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1993.

The Military Balance 1994-1995. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1994.

The Military Balance 1995-1996. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995.

Narody mira: Etnograficheskiye ocherki (Peoples of the World: Ethnographic Sketches). Moscow: Nauka, 1963.

Nichol, James, and Leah Titerence. "Turkmenistan: Basic Facts," CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Library of Conggress, Congressional Research Services, March 16, 1993.

1995 Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: 1995.

Nissman, David B. "Iran and Soviet Islam: The Azerbaijan and Turkmen SSRs," Central Asia Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 2, No. 4, 1983, 45-60.

PlanEcon. Review and Outlook for the Former Soviet Republics. Washington: 1995.

Plyshevskiy, B. "Ekonomicheskoye polozheniye gosudarstv SNG" (The Economic Situation of the CIS States), Ekonomist [Moscow], 1993, No. 4, 63-75.

Polyakov, Sergey Petrovich. Etnicheskaya istoriya severo-zapadnoy Turkmenii. sredniye veka (The Ethnic History of Northwest Turkmenia in the Middle Ages). Ashgabat: 1973.

Rashid, Ahmed. The Resurgence of Central Asia: Islam or Nationalism? Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Zed Books, 1994.

Saray, Mehmet. The Turkmens in the Age of Imperialism:. Study of the Turkmen People and Their Incorporation into the Russian Empire. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society, 1989.

Simon, Gerhard. Nationalism and Policy Toward the Nationalities in the Soviet Union. Trans., K. Forster and O. Forster. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Sizov, Andrey Yevgen'yevich. "Ekonomika Rossii. drugikh stran SNG. nachale 90-kh godov" (The Economy of Russia and the Other Countries of the CIS at the Beginning of the 1990s). Mirovaya ekonomika. mezhdunarodnyye otnosheniya [Moscow], 1993, No. 7, 20-29.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1995-1996. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Subtelny, E. "The Cult of Holy Places: Religious Practices among Soviet Muslims," Middle East Journal. 43, No. 4, 1989, 593-604.

Turkmenenforschung (Research on the Turkmen), 1-15. Hamburg and Berlin: Reinhold Schletzer Verlag, 1979-93.

Tyson, David, and Larry Clark. Turkmen: Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in Turkmenistan. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Demographic Yearbook 1993. New York: 1995.

United States. Agency for International Development. Center for Health Information. USAID Health Profile: Turkmenistan. Arlington, Virginia: USAID, 1992.

United States. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters. International Narcotics Strategy Report March 1996. Washington: GPO, 1996.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1992. Washington: GPO, 1992.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Piecing Together Central Asia:. Look at Key Leaders. Washington: GPO, 1993.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Turkmenistan: An Economic Profile. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1993.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.

United States. Congress. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Human Rights and Democratization in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Washington: GPO, 1993.

United States. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Former USSR: Agriculture and Trade Report 1991. Washington: GPO, 1992.

United States. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Former USSR: Agriculture and Trade Report 1992. Washington: GPO, 1993.

United States. Department of Commerce. Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States. Commercial Overview of Turkmenistan. Washington: 1993.

United States. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. (Report submitted to United States Congress, 103d, 2d Session, House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations.) Washington: GPO, 1994.

WEFA Group. Eurasia Economic Outlook, February 1996. Eddystone, Pennsylvania: 1996.

Wheeler, Geoffrey. The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia. New York: Praeger, 1964.

Wolfson, Zeev. "Central Asian Environment:. Dead End," Environmental Policy Review. 4, No. 1, January 1990, 29-46.

World Bank. Statistical Handbook 1995: States of the Former USSR. Washington: 1995.

World Bank. Turkmenistan. World Bank Country Study. Washington: 1994.

World Radio TV Handbook 1996. Ed., Andrew G. Sennitt. Amsterdam: Billboard, 1996.

Yekayev, Orazpolat. Turkmenistan. turkmeny. kontse XV-pervoy polovine XVI. (Turkmenistan and the Turkmen at the End of the Fifteenth-First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries). Ashgabat: Ylym, 1981.

Chapter 5

Abduvakhitov, Abdujabar. "Independent Uzbekistan:. Muslim Community in Development." Pages 293-306 in Michael Bourdeaux, ed., The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Akbarzadeh, Shahram. "Nation Building in Uzbekistan," Central Asian Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 15, March 1996, 23-32.

Alikhanov, B. B., and S. S. Tursunov, Ekonomicheskiye problemy okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy. usloviyakh Uzbekistana (Economic Problems of Environmental Protection in the Conditions of Uzbekistan). Tashkent: State Committee on Hydrology, 1990.

Allworth, Edward, ed. Central Asia: 120 Years of Russian Rule. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.

Azv'yalova, L.V., O.A. Agafonova, and L.A. Semakina. Zagryazneniye atmosfery Sredney Azii tyazhelymi metallami. Atmospheric Pollution by Heavy Metals in Central Asia). Tashkent: State Committee on Hydrology, 1991.

Bacon, Elizabeth E. Central Asians under Russian Rule. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Banuazizi, Ali, and Myron Weiner, eds. The New Geopolitics of Central Asia and Its Borderlands. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Bartol'd, Vasilii Vladimirovich. Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion. London: Luzac, 1968.

Bohr, Annette. "Health Catastrophe in Karakalpakstan," Report on the USSR [Munich], 1, July 21, 1989, 37-38.

Bourdeaux, Michael, ed. The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Brown, Bess. "National Security and Military Issues in Central Asia." Pages 234-52 in Bruce Parrott, ed., State Building and Military Power in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Brown, Bess. "Three Central Asian States Form Economic Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 3, No. 13, April 1, 1994, 33-35.

Carlisle, Donald S. "Power and Politics in Soviet Uzbekistan: From Stalin to Gorbachev." Pages 93-130 in William Fierman, Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Colton, Timothy J., and Robert C. Tucker, eds. Patterns in Post-Soviet Leadership. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995.

Critchlow, James. Nationalism in Uzbekistan. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Dannreuther, Roland. Creating New States in Central Asia. Adelphi Paper No. 288. London: Brassey's for International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1994.

Davis, Christopher M. "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 35-43.

Drobizheva, Leokadia, et al., eds. Ethics Conflict in the Post-Soviet World: Case Studies and Analysis. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Report: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan [London], No. 1, 1996.

The Europa World Year Book 1993. 2. London: Europa, 1993.

The Europa World Year Book 1994. 2. London: Europa, 1994.

The Europa World Year Book 1995. 2. London: Europa, 1995.

The Europa World Year Book 1996. 2. London: Europa, 1996.

Fane, Daria. "Ethnicity and Regionalism in Uzbekistan: Maintaining Stability Through Authoritarian Control." Pages 271-302 in Leokadia Drobizheva, et al., eds. Ethnic Conflict in the Post- Soviet World: Case Studies and Analysis. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1996.

Ferdinand, Peter, ed. The New States of Central Asia and Their Neighbors. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

Feshbach, Murray, and Alfred Friendly, Jr. Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Fierman, William. "Independence and the Declining Priority of Language Law Implementation in Uzbekistan." Pages 205-30 in Yaacov Ro'i, ed., Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Fierman, William, ed. Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Hale, Henry. "Islam, State-building, and Uzbekistan Foreign Policy," Pages 136-72 in Ali Banuazizi and Myron Weiner, eds., The New Geopolitics of Central Asia and Its Borderlands. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Henley, John S., and George B. Assaf. "Re-Integrating the Central Asian Republics into the World Economy," Intereconomics. 30, September-October 1995, 235-45.

Horton, Scott, and Tatiana Geller. "Investing in Uzbekistan's Natural Resources Sector," Central Asia Monitor. 1996, No. 1, 25-35.

Horton, Scott, and Tatiana Geller. "Secured Transactions in Uzbekistan," Central Asia Monitor. 1996, No. 2, 21-7.

Institute for National Strategic Studies. Strategic Assessment 1995: U.S. Security Challenges in Transition. Washington: GPO, 1995.

Karpat, Kemal. "The Foreign Policy of the Central Asian States, Turkey, and Iran," OSCE Bulletin. 3, No. 1, Winter 1994-95, 17-30.

Konyukhov, V.G. Ekologicheskaya obstanovka. Uzbekistanskoy SSR. mery po yeye uluchsheniyu (The Ecological Situation in the Uzbek SSR and Measures to Improve It). Tashkent: State Committee on Environmental Protection, 1990.

Lawyers' Committee for Human Rights. Freedom of Association Project. Karimov's Way: Freedom of Association and Assembly in Uzbekistan. Briefing Paper No. 1. New York: 1994.

Lubin, Nancy. Central Asians Take Stock. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995.

Lubin, Nancy. "Islam and Ethnic Identity in Central Asia:. View from Below." Pages 53-70 in Yaacov Ro'i, ed., Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Lubin, Nancy. Labour and Nationality in Soviet Central Asia: An Uneasy Compromise. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Lubin, Nancy. "Leadership in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan: The Views of the Led." Pages 217-34 in Timothy J. Colton and Robert C. Tucker, eds., Patterns in Post-Soviet Leadership. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995.

Lubin, Nancy. "Uzbekistan." Pages 289-306 in Philip R. Pryde, ed., Environmental Resources and Constraints in the Former Soviet Republics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995.

Lubin, Nancy. "Uzbekistan: The Challenges Ahead," Middle East Journal. 43, No. 4, Autumn 1989, 619-34.

Micklin, Philip. "The Aral Sea Crisis: Introduction to the Special Issue," Post-Soviet Geography. 33, No. 5, May 1992, 269-82.

Nichol, James. "Central Asia's New States: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests," CRS Issue Brief. July 31, 1996.

Nichol, James. "Uzbekistan: Basic Facts," CRS Report for Congress. May 28, 1996.

1995 Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: 1995.

Olcott, Martha Brill. Central Asia's New States: Independence, Foreign Policy, and Regional Security. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.

Olcott, Martha Brill. "The Myth of 'Tsentral'naia Aziia'," Orbis. 38, No. 3, Summer 1995, 549-66.

Polat, Abdumannob. "Uzbekistan: Does the Government Want. Dialogue with the Opposition," Caspian Crossroads. Winter 1995, 26-28.

Posner, Michael. Human Rights and Legal Issues in Uzbekistan. New York: Lawyers' Committee for Human Rights, 1993.

Pryde, Philip R., ed. Environmental Resources and Constraints in the Former Soviet Republics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1995.

Ro'i, Yaacov, ed. Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Rubinstein, Alvin Z. "The Geopolitical Pull on Russia," Orbis. 38, No. 3, Summer 1995, 567-84.

Rumer, Boris Z. Soviet Central Asia:. "Tragic Experiment." Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Sagers, Matthew J. "News Notes," Post-Soviet Geography. 33, No. 3, 1992, 190.

Staar, S. Frederick. "Making Eurasia Stable," Foreign Affairs. 75, January-February 1996, 80-92.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1993-1994. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1994-1995. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

The Statesman's Year-Book 1995-1996. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Demographic Yearbook 1993. New York, 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Uzbekistan: An Economic Profile. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1993.

United States. Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters. International Narcotics Strategy Report March 1996. Washington: GPO, 1996.

"Uzbekistan," Central Asia Monitor. 1996, No. 3, entire issue.

Uzbekistan. State Committee on Projections and Statistics. Chislennost', sostav. dvizheniye naseleniya Respubliki Uzbekistan (The Size, Composition, and Movement of the Population of the Republic of Uzbekistan). Tashkent: 1992.

Uzbekistan. State Committee on Projections and Statistics. Okhrana zdorov'ya. respublike Uzbekistana (Health Protection in the Republic of Uzbekistan). Tashkent: 1991.

Vaisman, Demian. "Regionalism and Clan Loyalty in the Political Life of Uzbekistan." Pages 105-22 in Yaacov Ro'i, ed., Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

World Bank. Statistical Handbook 1995: States of the Former USSR. Washington: 1995.

World Bank. Uzbekistan: An Agenda for Economic Reform. Washington: 1993.

World Radio TV Handbook 1996. Ed., Andrew G. Sennitt. Amsterdam: Billboard, 1996.




Last Updated: March 1996


Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Turkmenistan was first published in 1996. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on Factba.se.

Turkmenistan Main Page Country Studies Main Page




Section 77 of 78






IMAGES


Click any image to enlarge.


National Flag



(m) (TMT)
Convert to Any Currency



Map



Locator Map