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Yugoslavia: Defense Organization
Country Study > Chapter 5 > National Security > Defense Organization


Source: Based on information from "Defense School: The Yugoslav Armed Forces -- Bulwark of Our Defense," Front [Belgrade], November 28, 1980, in Joint Publications Research Service, Translations on East Europe, February 4, 1981, 89-93.


Source: Based on information from Milan N. Vego, "The Yugoslav Ground Forces: A Look at the Past and the Present," Military Review, 60, November 1980, 21; and Marko Milivogevic, "The Yugoslav People's Army," Armed Forces, 6, 1987, 19.


Soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army in field exercise - Courtesy Embassy of Yugoslavia, Washington


Officer inspecting paratroop equipment - Courtesy Embassy of Yugoslavia, Washington


Member of Territorial Defense Force - Courtesy Embassy of Yugoslavia, Washington

In 1990 the armed forces consisted of the Yugoslav People's Army (YPA) and the Territorial Defense Forces (TDF). The professional YPA in turn included three service branches: the ground forces, or army, the air force, and the navy. The TDF was a large militia force with local units throughout the country. The passing of virtually the entire Partisan generation, beginning with the death of Tito in 1980, removed a major source of inspiration from the Yugoslav military establishment. In 1990 the leadership abilities of the younger officers, who had experienced neither combat nor invasion, remained untested and largely unknown.

Data as of December 1990

Last Updated: December 1990

Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Yugoslavia was first published in 1990. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on

Yugoslavia Main Page Country Studies Main Page

Section 176 of 208


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