We're always looking for ways to make better. Have an idea? See something that needs fixing? Let us know!

Cuba: The Military
Country Study > Chapter 2 > The Society and Its Environment > Mass Organizations and Socialization > The Military


Military service, of course, has also acted as a socialization agent since mandatory male military service began in 1963. Under the 1973 Law of Compulsory Military Service, draftees receive a heavy dose of ideological instruction. Other military institutional mechanisms that are used to attempt to socialize male youths not deemed fit for regular service-whether for ideological orientation, social attitudes, or poor academic preparation-have included the notorious Military Units in Support of Production (Unidades Militares de Ayuda a la Produccion-UMAPs). The intent of the UMAPs' forced labor camps, while they were operational in the 1963-65 period, was to punish and modify the behavior of "antisocial" individuals, including religious believers and homosexuals. In more recent years, many draftees have been made to serve in the EJT (Youth Labor Army). These militarized but poorly trained units perform primarily economic tasks, such as sugarcane harvesting and construction work.

Last Updated: April 2001

Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Cuba was first published in 2001. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on

Cuba Main Page Country Studies Main Page

Section 56 of 149


Click any image to enlarge.

National Flag

(₱) Cuban Peso (CUP)
Convert to Any Currency


Locator Map