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Ghana: Table A. Chronology of Important Events
Country Study > Table A. Chronology of Important Events

TABLE A. CHRONOLOGY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS


Early History

ca. 10,000 B.C. - Earliest recorded probable human habitation within modern Ghana at site on Oti River.

ca. 4000 B.C. - Oldest date for pottery at Stone Age site near Accra.

ca. 100 B.C. - Early Iron Age at Tema.

FORMATIVE CENTURIES

ca. A.D. 1200 - Guan begin their migrations down Volta Basin from Gonja toward Gulf of Guinea.

ca. 1298 - Akan kingdom of Bono (Brong) founded. Other states had arisen or were beginning to rise about this time.

1471-82 - First Europeans arrive. Portuguese build Elmina Castle.

1500-1807 - Era of slave raids and wars and of intense state formation in Gold Coast.

1697-1745 - Rise and consolidation of Asante Empire.

Nineteenth Century

1843-44 - British government signs Bond of 1844 with Fante chiefs.

1873-74 - Last Asante invasion of coast. British capture Kumasi.

1874 - Britain establishes Gold Coast Colony.

1878 - Cocoa introduced to Ghana.

1896 - Anglo-Asante war leads to exile of asantehene and British protectorate over Asante.

Twentieth Century

1900 - First Africans appointed to colony's Legislative Council.

1902 - Northern Territories proclaimed a British protectorate.

1914-18 - Gold Coast Regiment serves with distinction in East Africa.

1919 - German Togo becomes a mandate under Gold Coast administration.

1925 - Constitution of 1925 calls for six chiefs to be elected to Legislative Council.

1939-45 - Gold Coast African forces serve in Ethiopia and Burma.

1947 - United Gold Coast Convention founded.

1949 - Kwame Nkrumah breaks with United Gold Coast Convention and forms Convention People's Party.

1951 - New constitution leads to general elections. Convention People's Party wins two-thirds majority.

1954 - New constitution grants broad powers to Nkrumah's government.

1956 - Plebiscite in British Togoland calls for union with Gold Coast.

1956 - Convention People's Party wins 68 percent of seats in legislature and passes an independence motion, which British Parliament approves.

1957 - British Colony of the Gold Coast becomes independent Ghana on March 6.

1958 - Entrenched protection clauses of constitution repealed; regional assemblies abolished; Preventive Detention Act passed.

1960 - Plebiscite creates a republic on July 1, with Nkrumah as president.

1964 - Ghana declared a one-party state. Completion of Akosombo Dam.

1966 - While Nkrumah is in China, army stages widely popular coup. National Liberation Council comes to power.

1969 - Progress Party, led by Kofi A. Busia, wins National Assembly elections.

1972 - Lieutenant Colonel Ignatius Acheampong leads a military coup in January that brings National Redemption Council to power.

1978 - Fellow military officers ease Acheampong from power.

1979 - Junior officers stage Ghana's first violent coup, June 4. Armed Forces Revolutionary Council formed under Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings. Hilla Limann elected president in July.

1981 - Rawlings stages second coup, December 31. Provisional National Defence Council established with Rawlings as chairman.

1983 - First phase of Economic Recovery Program introduced with World Bank and International Monetary Fund support.

1985 - National Commission for Democracy, established to plan the democratization of Ghana's political system, officially inaugurated in January.

1988-89 - Elections for new district assemblies begin in early December and continue through February - 1989.

1990 - Various organizations call for return to civilian government and multiparty politics, among them Movement for Freedom and Justice, founded in August.

1991 - Provisional National Defence Council announces its acceptance, in May, of multipartyism in Ghana. June deadline set for creation of Consultative Assembly to discuss nation's new constitution.

1992 - National referendum in April approves draft of new democratic constitution. Formation and registration of political parties becomes legal in May. Jerry Rawlings elected president November 3 in national presidential election. Parliamentary elections of December 29 boycotted by major opposition parties, resulting in landslide victory for National Democratic Congress.

1993 - Ghana's Fourth Republic inaugurated January 4 with the swearing in of Rawlings as president.

Late 1994-early 1995 - Ghana hosts peace talks for warring factions of Liberian civil war.

1995 - President Rawlings pays official visit to the United States March 8-9, first such visit by a Ghanaian head of state in more than thirty years.

Data as of November 1994




Last Updated: November 1994


Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Ghana was first published in 1994. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on Factba.se.

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