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Ghana: Manpower
Country Study > Chapter 5 > National Security > Military Manpower, Training, and Morale > Manpower


There is a two-year national service requirement for male Ghanaians, but military manpower levels have always been maintained by voluntary enlistment. A limited number of women also serve in the armed forces, but all women are found in administrative positions, not in operational units. In mid-1988 the Ghanaian government enacted a law requiring all national service personnel to undergo a six-month military training program that stresses drilling, weapons handling, physical fitness, and first aid.

The armed forces offer commissions to individuals from civilian life or to those who complete cadet training. The term of service usually is five years with reserve obligations thereafter. Most technical services officers are selected from civilian life on the basis of professional qualifications. Recruits for combat or combat support branches are required to complete two years of cadet training before receiving their commissions.

Enlisted personnel are recruited for particular service branches to satisfy specific needs. Enlistments last up to twelve years with various active- and reserve-duty options. Reenlistments are authorized for a total of eighteen years; unit commanders are empowered to extend this term of service on a case-by-case basis. Enlisted recruits for the technical services are required to possess at least a middle school or junior secondary school education. All personnel must pass a physical examination and be at least eighteen years old.

Data as of November 1994

Last Updated: November 1994

Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Ghana was first published in 1994. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on

Ghana Main Page Country Studies Main Page

Section 160 of 181


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