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Ghana: China
Country Study > Chapter 5 > National Security > Foreign Military Assistance > China


Next to the former Soviet Union, China was the most active communist presence in Ghana. Chinese activities began in October 1962, when Beijing agreed to provide a loan for the construction of two arms factories; Ghana, however, never used the funds. Two years later, the two countries signed a secret agreement for the provision of military equipment and advisers for Ghana's "freedom fighters." In late 1964, a five-member team of Chinese guerrilla warfare experts arrived at Half Assini Training Camp. Shortly thereafter, this team inaugurated a twenty-day course that consisted of training in the manufacture and the use of explosives, guerrilla tactics, and "basic guiding and thinking on armed struggle." Other Chinese instructors offered another course at Obenimase Camp in Ashanti Region on strategy and tactics, explosives, weapons use, telecommunications, and battlefield first aid. An unknown number of Ghanaians also attended a three-month espionage training course in China. Students from many other African nations, including Zaire, Niger, Cameroon, Fernando Po, Tanzania, Zambia, Rwanda, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina, Gabon, Nigeria, and Guinea, also received intelligence training from the Chinese in Ghana.

After the 1966 change of government, Ghana expelled 430 Chinese nationals, including three intelligence officers and thirteen guerrilla warfare specialists. Although they resumed diplomatic relations in 1972, Ghana and China never re-initiated significant military ties.

Data as of November 1994

Last Updated: November 1994

Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for Ghana was first published in 1994. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.

Note that current information from the CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State Background Notes, Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Country Briefs, the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Country Profiles, and the World Bank can be found on

Ghana Main Page Country Studies Main Page

Section 169 of 181


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