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Although much of the top executive authority of the science and technology infrastructure resides in New Delhi, some premier science and technology institutions are located elsewhere. Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, is a center for high-technology industry and a major research and development site. Much of the activity in Bangalore's "Silicon Valley" is carried out through collaborative arrangements with multinational corporations in fields such as aeronautics, communications, electronics, and machine tools. By 1990 there were more than 100,000 people employed by 3,000 companies in the electronics industry alone.
The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay conducts fundamental research in astronomy, mathematics, molecular biology, and physics; and applied research in computer science, ion accelerators, material science, and solid state electronics. Organizationally, the institute is a component of the Department of Atomic Energy. When the atomic energy program began in 1948, the Tata Institute provided trained staff, and in 1955, because of the important role it played in nuclear energy research, the institute was recognized as the National Centre of the Government of India for Advanced Study and Fundamental Research in Nuclear Science and Mathematics. In this capacity, the institute became a world-class nuclear research facility, recognized for its discoveries in the field of strange particles.
Research on applied mathematics, astrophysics, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), high-power microwaves, stratospheric and underground nuclear physics, theoretical computer science, and other high-technology fields is carried out by the Tata Institute in Bombay and at its facilities in Bangalore and Kolar in Karnataka, Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, Pachmarhi in Madhya Pradesh, Pune in Maharashtra, and Udhagamandalam (Ooty) in Tamil Nadu.
Tata Institute scientists designed the first Indian digital computer in the 1960s and since then have contributed directly to the manufacture of microwave components and devices. Joint work has been conducted with foreign laboratories, such as accelerator experiments with Switzerland and the United States. The Tata Institute also provides both formal and informal science education aimed at improving the quality of science education and developing remedial measures for improving scholastic performance.
Data as of September 1995
Editor's Note: Country Studies included here were published between 1988 and 1998. The Country study for India was first published in 1995. Where available, the data has been updated through 2008. The date at the bottom of each section will indicate the time period of the data. Information on some countries may no longer be up to date. See the "Research Completed" date at the beginning of each study on the Title Page or the "Data as of" date at the end of each section of text. This information is included due to its comprehensiveness and for historical purposes.
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