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Introduction: Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens...

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International Relations: Gibraltar is within the European Union by virtue of Article355(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. However, under the UK's Act of Accession, Gibraltar is excluded from four areas of EU policy: the Common Customs Territory and Common Commercial Policy (and thus EU rules on the free movement of goods, do not apply); the Common Agricultural Policy; the Common Fisheries Policy; and the requirement to levy VAT. Gibraltarians have rights of free movement within the EU. While the UK Government is ultimately responsible under the Treaty for the implementation of EULaw in Gibraltar, EU measures are usually implemented within ...

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