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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, tripartite talks among Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have been held with the aim of... See More



 Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic Coordinates:

 36 08 N, 5 21 W


 Total: 6.5 sq km
Land: 6.5 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 More than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 1.2 km
Border countries: Spain 1.2 km


 12 km (Rank: 198)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 3 nm


 Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers


 A narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Land Use:

 Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 100% (2005)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - Note:

 Strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

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 Noun: Gibraltarian(s)
Adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic Groups:

 Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans


 English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese


 Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)


 28,956 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 3,040/female 2,862)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 9,607/female 9,451)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 1,934/female 2,062) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 33.3 years
Male: 32.4 years
Female: 34.3 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 0.273% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 14.23 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 8.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 6.69 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 7.44 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 78.68 years
Male: 75.84 years
Female: 81.72 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.96 children born/woman (2011 est.)


 Definition: NA
Total population: above 80%
Male: NA
Female: NA

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Gibraltar


 Name: Gibraltar
Geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 None (overseas territory of the UK)

Dependency Status:

 Overseas territory of the UK


 None (overseas territory of the UK)

National Holiday:

 National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain


 5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007

Legal System:

 The laws of the UK, where applicable, apply


 18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Vice Admiral Sir Adrian JOHNS (since 26 October 2009)

Head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 8 December 2011)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 8 December 2011 (next to be held not later than 8 December 2015)

Election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 48%, GSLP 46.8%, Progressive Democratic Party 4.4%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 7, Progressive Democratic Party 0

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Fabian PICARDO]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]; Progressive Democratic Party

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association

International Organization Participation:

 Interpol (subbureau), UPU

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 None (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 None (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag Description:

 Two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean

National Symbols:

 Barbary macaque

National Anthem:

 Name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
Lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY

Note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)


 (overseas territory of the UK)

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Economy - Overview:

 Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $1.275 billion (2008)
$1.203 billion (2007 est.)
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 6% (2008)
8.8% (2007)
0% (2006 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $43,000 (2006 est.)
$41,200 (2007 est.)
$38,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 0%
Industry: 0%
Services: 100% (2008 est.)

Labor Force:

 12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: negligible
Industry: 40%
Services: 60% (2001)

Unemployment Rate:

 3% (2005 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%


 Revenues: $475.8 million
Expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 43% of GDP (2008 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 2.1% of GDP (2008 est.)

Public Debt:

 7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
13.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 2.8% (2008)
2.6% (2006)


 Tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Industrial Production Growth Rate:


Electricity - Production:

 156 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 100%
Hydro: 0%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 156 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 25,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 26,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)


 $271 million (2004 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods


 $2.967 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Gibraltar Pound to Any Currency

Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
0.6388 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.4993 (2007)
0.5418 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 24,000 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 30,000 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities

Domestic: automatic exchange facilities

International: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast Media:

 Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides television and radio broadcasting services via 1 television station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 2,053 (2010)

Internet Users:

 20,200 (2009)

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 1 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)


 Total: 29 km
Paved: 29 km (2007)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 265
By type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 139, chemical tanker 65, container 35, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 8
Foreign-owned: 250 (Belgium 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Finland 2, Germany 125, Greece 7, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 33, Norway 42, Singapore 1, Sweden 12, UAE 5, UK 4)

Note: this country allows large numbers of ships owned by foreign entities to be registered in its national shipping registry and to fly its flag; these ships operate under the laws of the flag state
Registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:


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Military Branches:

 Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2009)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 7,037 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 6,017
Females age 16-49: 5,706 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 228
Female: 220 (2010 est.)

Military - Note:

 Defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992

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Disputes - International:

 In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy

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Last Updated: December 2011

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